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City of Marquette 1883

Source: History of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan: containing a full account of its early settlement, its growth, development, and resources, an extended description of its iron and copper mines : also, accurate sketches of its counties, cities, towns, and villages ... biographical sketches, portraits of prominent men and early settlers. Publication Info: Chicago : Western Historical Co., 1883. Pages 411-427.

In beginning this sketch of a city which holds within itself all the elements to insure greatness, linked with general prosperity, it is becoming to notice where these elements and resources appear to lie unrequisitioned. This cause might be considered presumptuous, had not the fact that where wealth and intelligence center a great deal is expected, and therefore remarkable advances should be made by Marquette. It may be conceded that progress has forced herself upon the city, rather than halted to be sought for. This is evident every day—visitors without full hotel accommodations; a home demand for garden and farm produce, without the horticulturist or agriculturist; a taste for honest workingmen's healthy dwelling-houses, without enterprise to erect such cottages; a place for a first-class daily newspaper, without courage to inaugurate one; a necessity for twenty manufacturing industries, without the will to establish them; a union depot needed, without the desire to undertake its construction. There are many wants to be supplied which the leading men of the city fail to realize, or rather cannot find time to inquire into. Iron, iron, iron seems to have left its impress upon all, save the hearts of the people. Late and early the rumbling trains of ore, the loading of ore ships, and the very words of hurrying thousands tell of iron, iron, iron. In the magnificence of this industry, the citizens appear to have merged many other thoughts of works, which are great aids to progress, and are absolutely necessary to prove that civilization is not forgotten in the prosperity of the citizen.

Opposed to all the enumerated wants are the beautiful residences and grounds of the wealthy; the cheerful, tidy homes of those who have a competence; the splendid houses of worship, stores of a metropolitan character, large school buildings, a valuable city library, many private libraries and museums of natural history, an educated and genial society, wise business men, an orphanage and con­vent schools, well-managed banks, a beautiful location, and, though last not least, the fame of being the oldest and prospective center of business, politics and religion in the Upper Peninsula. Remember that the natural resources of Marquette scarcely bear the marks of ever having been subjected to a test; while hundreds of industries, for which there is an opening, appear to be undreamt of. A world of undeveloped, yes, even unexplored, industry remains to be called upon by labor, and labor itself has to learn to minimize, to temper its toilsome seriousness before the des­tiny of Marquette City can be fulfilled.

The city is located on Iron Harbor, an inlet of Lake Superior, about an equal distance from the St. Mary's and Montreal Rivers—the eastern and western boundaries of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. The distance from Sault de St. Marie Village is about 170 miles: from Detroit, by water routes, 446 miles, and from Chicago, by rail, about 430 miles. It is undoubtedly the most important center of trade and business energy north of Detroit and Grand Rapids, in Lower Michigan, and must be, as it has been, considered the metropolis of the Upper Peninsula.

The city is ensconced beneath the highlands, having a frontage on Iron Bay, and separated from the main chain of the hills by a limited plateau. The district has a geological system perfect and complete in itself, with the records beautifully preserved in the rocks, and each formation fully exposed, by uplift and erosion, to scientific investigation. Conceive a nucleus of upturned metamorphic rocks, micaschists, slates and quartzites of archean time, sur­rounded by encircling belts of subsequent geological formations, extending continuously around the hillocks arranged in the order of their deposition, with a general dip from the center toward the plateau. The hills are covered with heavy forests of pine, are cut by a thousand channels made by the rush of receding waters, numerous valleys, from a few rods to perhaps half a mile are found. Here are beautiful parks, terraced and carpeted with a wealth of grass and flora that would delight the most cultured taste. Crystal streams, fed by numerous springs, coarse through these valleys, now whirling around sharp corners or rushing over rapids—rippling on to the foot­hills the quiet murmuring suggestive of angel whisperings —and entering the great lake.

The parks to be found on every hand afford places for lovely homes. Rich grasses cover the hillsides and the valleys, and are found in the crevices of rocks and in the beds of deep canons, making the country one of the most entertaining summer retreats to be found on the continent.

Not quite half a century ago, the present site of Mar­quette was a wild, unbroken wilderness, the occupation of which was contested for by the Indian and the beasts of the forest. The coming of the white man, in 1844-45, inau­gurated the advance of progress and civilization, which has transformed that wilderness into one of the most flour­ishing towns on the lakes connecting the East with the West. It is less than fifty years ago since the first home of the enterprising settler was erected in the county, and many of those who followed in the footsteps of the adventurous pioneers and established themselves on the remotest borders of civilization still live to tell of the events of those eventful days. Little over half a century has passed since the Indians exercised exclusive dominion over the district, and, within that time, they have disappeared, gone to reservations apportioned them by the Government, or have crossed the beautiful river and are presumably in ac­tive possession of the happy hunting-grounds. The days between the death of barbarism and the growth of civiliza­tion have been, as it were, a span long. But brief as the space has been, it has afforded abundant opportunity for the sowing of seeds which will bear, nay, have borne, a plenteous harvest. But yesterday and the hand of man was utilized to develop the resources of this bountiful land.

Today, substantial interests pay tribute to a growing city wherein no rivalry exists but that found in the pursuit of truth, intelligence, integrity and Christian morality. The indebtedness to the hardy band of pioneers who prepared the way for the degree of perfection which exists today, should live in the memory of coming generations until the human race has run its course and the wide firmament is rolled up like a scroll. It can never be discharged. All honor to those grand old soldiers who, in their pioneer lives, displayed more of discipline and steadiness, hardihood, patience and endurance, than the soldier whose paths of duty lead through hardships, and pains, and perils, to un­known graves. No monument can record their pilgrimage down the checkered aisles of time, from the day when they landed here until they went hence and were seen no more forever. No sculptured marble can commemorate their bravery, their humanity, or their endurance forged in the flame of adversity. The brightest pages of history alone can record a truthful narrative of their trials and triumphs; the noblest flights of orators can alone draw illustrations from their patriotism and self-imposed exile, and the sublimest strains of poetry their inspirations from the lives of these truly great men. Monuments to their honor will crumble into dust, but their virtues will be remembered in the hearts of their descendants, in the hearts of those who today profit by their venturesome labors, and that memory can never be destroyed either by the flight of time or the corroding storms of heaven. Their enterprise gave birth to the railroads which net the State from center to circum­ference; to the villages which have sprung up in a night; to the towns and cities which flourish and dictate a policy adapted to every emergency. But they have gone, and the flowers which deck their silent resting-places smile sadly over the patient face of the sleeper as they nod in the breezes toward the city created by the coffined pioneer. They are gone, but their labors live after them, and the heirs of an inheritance so priceless should discharge the trust committed to their care with the greatest diligence, that generations may, too, rise up to call them blessed, and when life's pilgrimage is ended, the steward of the world may bid them enter into joys that await the faithful serv­ant. The history of the first settlement of Marquette is the higher duplicate of every settlement undertaken in the West since the nomadic disposition of Eastern enterprise first manifested its existence.

The city's history is that of the American pioneer history of this portion of the State. It is contemporary and almost identical with the history of iron mining, although in pre­historic times it is possible the civilization of that mys­terious period knew the district, even as the French missionaries of the beginning of the seventeenth century were aware of the rich substrata, or the trappers and Indians of 1830 cognizant of its valuable iron rocks. With all this knowledge, the neighborhood was unexplored by enterprise until 1845, when P. M. Everett, of Jackson, came hither. Then the real value of the location and of the lands in the neighborhood became apparent. He recognized the value of the mineral, and without delay located territory for mining purposes in the interest of the Jackson Mining Company; sent about a ton of ore to the mouth of the Carp River for shipment to Pittsburgh, which, on reaching that point, was tested by the scientists there, and pronounced not worth its weight in sand. Another collection of speci­mens was sent to an old forge at Coldwater, or, perhaps, to Union City, Mich., where the first iron from Lake Superior ore was made. In the fall of 1846, an opening was made, and on the Carp a forge was constructed in 1847. The first iron turned out of this primitive furnace was sold to Capt. E. B. Ward, and manufactured into a walking-beam for the steamboat Ocean. Subsequently, the miners' work was carried on quietly for some years until the plank road from Marquette to the mine was built in 1854. This year must be considered the first of the era of mining progress. Then the Jackson Company began building an ore dock at Marquette, which was completed in 1856, and actually in­troduced mules, mule-drivers and a street railroad into the country. In 1855, the Iron Mountain Railroad was begun, and completed in 1857, as related in the history of the railroads of the Upper Peninsula. In 1856, regular ship­ments of ore from Marquette commenced. In 1867, the Peninsular Division of the Chicago & North-Western Railroad was completed from Negaunee to Escanaba, which partially destroyed the shipping monopoly enjoyed by Mar­quette up to that year; for a few years later, in 1871, it is stated, that of the entire product of the mines about 400,000 tons were shipped from Escanaba, and 450,000 tons from Marquette. Still, owing to the proximity of Mar­quette to the center of the iron district it must always re­main the great supply depot.

The natural scenery in this vicinity is rugged enough to be decidedly picturesque, and one is perpetually sur­prised at the new phases of the noble panorama unfolded before his eyes. There are high hills, deep gulches, trout streams that come dashing through rocky gorges with the precipitate dash and energy of mountain torrents, and mighty forests of pine, fir and hard woods. A lovelier spec­tacle is not presented even in the mountains of the Atlantic or Pacific States.

The view from Marquette Light-House is as extensive as it is beautiful. Since the Stannard Rock Light was established, July 4, 1882, it can be plainly seen from the light-house at this point, a distance of fifty-three miles. The Marquette light was established in 1853, in Latitude north 46° 32' 55" and Longitude west 87° 22' 12". Among the light-keepers were Messrs. Trucker, Barney, Morgan and P. H. McGuire. The steam fog whistle machinery is located before the light-house.

In speaking or writing of the climate of a country, it has become the established custom to allude to it as the "finest in the world," and draw a comparison with the "glorious skies of Sunny Italy." Most generally those comparisons are far-fetched, and have no real existence except in imagination. This city needs no such fictitious aids to enhance the beauty of her climate. She can show as bright skies, as pure air, as bracing an atmosphere, as lovely cloudless days, as brilliant starlit nights, as that land over which poets and painters have raved, and sane people have gone into ecstasies. Opposed to this are the fogs which come to cloud and chill the citizen; yet the initiated—those who have become acclimated—enjoy the seasons' round, while the visitor learns something from the dense mists, and oftentimes is pleased with the atmospheric variety which they offer.

The iron districts have experienced a season of unex­ampled prosperity this year. There has never been a time in the history of this peninsula when such activity affect­ing all classes of business, prevailed as at the present time. The shipment of iron for the year 1882 will exceed that of last year by several hundred thousand tons. The shipment of 1881 far exceeded that of any previous year. To this gradual increase of the iron production the present business prosperity is largely due. The mines in the vicinity yield large profits to the operators. With the increased products the profits increase. This tends directly to build up such miscellaneous business other than mining as may come within the circle of its influence. This great indus­try is the fountain-head of such business as exists in this district, whether manufacturing, mercantile or mechanical. The panic of 1873 and 1876 nearly paralyzed the mining interests of Michigan. That panic, although terrible to many in many instances, has in the end proved beneficial in many respects to the business of this Upper Peninsula. The speculative excitement of those days has, in a large measure, died out. The mines are now in the hands of men of capital, who are able to control and work them for the profit there is in legitimate mining. This, together with the improvements made in working them, is a guaranty that good times have come to stay. The effects of this prosperous condition of the iron mines is nowhere felt more sensibly than at Marquette.

Together with the great mining region, extending west from the city, there is still a vast country rich in agricult­ural resources, lying south and southeast. Doubtless full references are made to this district in the history of the eastern counties of the Upper Peninsula; yet, for the pur­pose of pointing out more distinctly the territory from which the Marquette of the future is destined to draw forth material for her greater progress, the following descriptions, dealing with advancement made between December, 1881, and August, 1882, are given.. The writer says:

On the 8th of December, 1881, the first train started out from Marquette to St. Ignace. The writer was among the passengers who started out on that memorable occasion to take part in the ceremony of driving the last spike, and note what was to be seen as we slowly steamed along the road, passing through a wilderness of 152 miles, without a sign of civilization save that of construction shanties used by the laborers in building the road. Towns existed there only in the mind of the surveyor, who had driven stakes at such points as were desirable as regular stations. The charms of nature in her primitive beauty were the only at­tractions which met the eye. After three days, we reached St. Ignace, where proper ceremonies were observed in com­memoration of the arrival of the first through train from Marquette. On the 10th of August, 1882, I again traversed this road, starting from St. Ignace, to note any changes that may appear. Taking a seat in one of the beautiful passenger coaches attached to one of the fine engines with which this road is equipped, I commence to notice the changes that have been made at this end since our advent on the evening of December 11, 1881. Our ride that even­ing terminated just back of the town, with only nature's covering for a depot. Today, we depart from a point on the opposite side of the town, where a beautiful structure has been built on piles several hundred feet out in the lake, to unite the road with the ferry boat Algomah, used as a means of connecting the two peninsulas by railroad. Looking up the beach, the eye rests on a large iron ore dock, extending fully one-quarter of a mile out into the lake, and some 600 feet inland to the rise of ground back of the main street. This dock has 100 pockets, with a like number of massive iron spouts, standing, when not in use, like sentinels in line to guard the passage of the straits against an invasion upon the commerce that passes through this narrow channel. This massive structure had no exist­ence, except on paper, six months ago. Much of the millions of feet of timber used in the building of it were then growing in the forests 100 miles away. While trying to comprehend the improvements made at St. Ignace, my at­tention was called to the town, and the changes taking place daily, as the result of the building of the railroad.

St. Ignace as a town includes all that space along the beach between the Mackinac Lumber Company's mills on the north and the Iron Smelting Works on the south. The distance, following the beach, which is much the shape of a fish­hook, is nearly two miles. Several new buildings are be­ing put up this season, for residences and stores. The county seat was located here last spring. The county buildings are to be commenced at once; also an $8,000 school building. Several private docks and warehouses are in course of construction, to afford facilities for the increasing business of the port. The familiar cry of "all aboard" reminds me that the hour has arrived to leave for Marquette. Looking at the watch, I note 10:50 A. M. as the time of starting. We soon leave the town behind.

Thirty-two minutes ride takes us to a station named Allenville, nine miles distant. A settlement has begun here, as a nucleus for a small town. The country around is good for farming purposes. The soil is rather light, timber a mixture of hard and soft wood, valuable for char­coal on account of the demand at St. Ignace for coal. The smelting company have coal kilns here, also at Johnson, thirteen miles farther up the road. The work of cutting timber for coal has been prosecuted to that extent that sev­eral hundred acres are ready for the clearing process to burn off the brush. Between Johnson and Newberry there are three small stations—Trout Lake, Hendrie and Sage's. There has been little done at these points.

Newberry is the most important point on the route, both as regards location for business and farming lands. The country here is heavily timbered with hard wood, extend­ing many miles back. The Vulcan Furnace Company are building a large furnace. It is to be one of the largest and most thoroughly equipped in the country. It is expected to be in operation by fall. The American Lumber Com­pany are building their mills near this station. This com­pany own all the pine necessary to operate their large mills for many years to come. This town is nicely platted. Lots are in great demand. There are several stores doing a good business with the settlers that are locating in the vicinity.

Eight and a half miles from here is McMillan. The general features of the country here are similar to those at Newberry. This is also a very promising site for a large town. Several buildings are already finished and occupied, others in course of building.

Twelve miles west is Seney Station. This is the oldest station in point of settlement on the road. It was used as a supply station while the road was being constructed. There are extensive lumber operations carried on near this station. Near here are the famous branches of the Munising and Manistique Rivers, this being the water-shed of the Upper Peninsula.

Driggs, Creighton and Jerome are small stations, surrounded by mixed timber-pine, cedar, hemlock and hard­wood. Munising is not, strictly speaking, on the railroad. It is situated some four miles from the station of that name. The town has a history reaching back some years before the advent of the road. The town has about 300 population. The country is considered favorable for agricultural pur­poses, which constitute the principal occupation of the in­habitants.

Ann's River, Summit, Au Train and Ward's Stations are small clearings, with a few houses. Rock River Kilns and Onota are points where charcoal is made for the furnaces at and near Marquette. The general appearance of this section of country is good, both as regards soil and timber.

The towns are growing rapidly, and have fair prospects of becoming good locations for business.

Dearton, Whitefish, Sand River and Chocolay are the last stations before reaching Marquette. They do not as yet give very strong indications of becoming anything more than a few houses and a small depot. The country is poor and sterile. Fires having some time burnt the timber off, it has grown up to scrub pine and white birch. There are large tracts of huckleberry plains in the vicinity.

At 8 P. M., we arrived at Marquette, passing through twenty-four stations where can be seen evidences of civili­zation and business thrift that six months before were a howling wilderness, given over to the solitary rambling of the venturesome trapper who plied his vocation undisturbed by the shrill whistle of the engine that has transformed his paradise into a field that shall bud and blossom like the rose, yielding rich return to The hardy pioneer who follows in the wake of the locomotive, to cultivate nature's resources here stored up.

There are four passenger-trains per day running on this road, two each way. Every comfort that money can pur­chase has been provided in equipping this road. A palace sleeping-car runs on the night trains. All the employees of the road are courteous and obliging. Every precaution to guard against accidents is observed. Thus we see that this peninsula is keeping pace with Michigan enterprises, mak­ing rapid strides toward the front, as a place to find good opportunities for homes, business or speculation."

An agricultural and industrial fair was held at Mar­quette in October, 1882. The principal organizers were B. P. Robins, Chairman of, and Sidney Adams and A. B. Palmer, members of committee. The exposition was held in Cole's Hall, and was in every respect a great success. It is stated by a recent visitor to Chicago, that, with the exception of the Indian corn and Arizona wheat, the exhi­bition of grain at Marquette gave greater and more satisfactory results than that of the Chicago Exhibit of Oc­tober, 1882. In one case, a Marquette citizen went direct to a location a few miles from the city, and purchased a farm, with the object of making agriculture his principal business. There can be no doubt whatever regarding the success which waits upon his enterprise.


The following valuable address on the history of Marquette was delivered by S. P. Ely, July 4, 1876. It holds a high place among the historical papers of the Centennial year, and must be considered in itself a fair resumé of the history of this city.

It is natural and reasonable for man to regard with pe­culiar interest the beginning and the ending of empires; to mark the labors and trials through which States were founded, the causes and the period of their decay. The old Greeks and Romans invented their whole mythology to account for their history, and peopled their heaven with dei­ties whose reason to be was what they did for or against the State.

Now that in the world's progress history is approaching authenticity, and, whether authentic or not, is fully trans­mitted by printed records; while our founders are close to us, and we know that they were men and not demigods; while we ourselves, though not the first, still share a part in the founding of the State, it is most fit upon such an anniversary as this, to gather up and preserve in every city throughout the land the record of its settlement and growth. This has been recommended by Congress and by the Governor of this State, and in accordance therewith your committee has invited me to address you on this occasion.

A hundred years ago the solitude of Lake Superior had never been broken by the permanent settlement of white men of any race. The old Mound-Builders had been here before the Christian era, had gathered copper and departed, leaving no signs behind them, except the stone hammers and the excavations in the mines they wrought. In the seventeenth century, those devoted missionaries, Allouez, Mesnard and Marquette, had sought to plant the Christian religion here, but all traces of their residence and their work had passed away. Later, Carver and Henry had traveled here, and left interesting accounts of their discov­eries. But the nearest American settlements were more than a thousand miles away, and it is safe to say that Lake Superior and the Mississippi seemed as remote and un­known to the patriots who signed the Declaration of Inde­pendence one hundred years ago as Lake Nyanza and the sources of the Nile are to our conception.

The deposits of iron ore which occasioned the settle­ment of Marquette County first became practically known in the year 1844. It does not appear that they were known to the Jesuit missionaries or to the explorers of the next century. They all speak of having seen copper, but not of iron. It is quite obvious why the deposits of iron, though much more conspicuous, should have been disregarded by the aborigines, while they searched and wrought industri­ously for copper. The copper being native was serviceable at once for their weapons and implements, while their rude metallurgy was quite unequal to the reduction of iron from the ore, and it therefore seemed to them of no greater value than any other rock.

P. B. Barbeau, the father-in-law of our fellow-townsman, J. P. Pendill, was informed by Indians from this region that mountains of iron existed here as early as 1830; but he obtained no specimens or authentic information be­fore the discoveries of the Government surveyors in 1844.

In the summer of that year, the late William A. Burt, deputy surveyor under Dr. Houghton for the linear survey for this portion of the Upper Peninsula, was engaged in running the township lines in this county, and on the 18th of September encamped with his party at the east end of Teal Lake. Mr. Jacob Houghton was a member of that party, and gives the following account of the first discovery of iron ore, which I extract from A. P. Swineford's excel lent history and review of this region:" On the morning of the 19th of September, 1844, we started to run the line south between Ranges 26 and 27. As soon as we reached the hill to the south of the lake, the compass man began to notice the fluctuation in the variation of the magnetic nee­dle. We were, of course, using the solar compass, of which Mr. Burt was the inventor, and I shall never forget the excitement of the old gentleman when viewing the changes of the variation—the needle not actually traversing alike in any two places. He kept changing his position to take observations, all the time saying, 'How would they survey this country without my compass? What could be done here without my compass?' It was the full and com­plete realization of what he had foreseen when struggling through the first stages of his invention. At length, the compass man called for us all to 'come and see a variation which will beat them all.' As we looked at the instrument, to our astonishment the north end of the needle was travers­ing a few degrees to the south of west. Mr. Burt called out, 'Boys, look around and see what you can find. 'We all left the line, some going to the east, some going to the west, and all of us returned with specimens of iron ore mostly gathered from outcrops. This was along the first mile from Teal Lake. We carried out all the specimens we could conveniently." J. N. Mellen, of Romeo, Mich., who was one of the party, has still in his possession one of the specimens found that day. This, it may be safely asserted, was the first discovery by white men of iron ore on Lake Superior.

The Jackson Mining Company, organized at Jackson, Mich., by our townsman, P. M. Everett, became the owner of the well-known Jackson Mine, at Negaunee, in 1845. In 1847, this company built the old Jackson forge, on the Carp River, three miles east of Negaunee, which, like all the other forges of the early days of Marquette County, steadily lost money for its owners and lessees, until it was finally abandoned in 1857.

The first shipment of iron ore was made from the Jack­son Mine in 1850; it consisted of five tons, and was taken away by A. L. Crawford, of Newcastle, by whom it was converted into blooms and bars to test the quality of the iron.

The Marquette Iron Company was the second in the field. This company was organized in 1848 by our towns­man, A. R. Harlow, and Edward Clark, then of Worcester, Mass., and the late Robert J. Graveraet. This company, under the superintendence of Mr. Harlow, in 1849, com­menced the building of the old Marquette forge, near the lake shore, just south of Superior Street. The arrival of Mr. Harlow's party to build the forge, on the 10th day of July, 1849, may be taken as the date of the first settlement of the city of Marquette. In May previous, Mr. Graveraet had brought in a small party to hold and develop the iron locations of the Marquette Iron Company. The party had proceeded at once to the location known later as the Cleve­land Mine, but, on the arrival of Mr. Harlow's party, they returned to this place and joined them. Our townsman, Peter White, was one of those who arrived in May, and is the only one who is still among us. I quote briefly from an interesting account by Peter White of this occasion: "Until the 10th of July, we kept possession of all the iron mountains then known west of the Jackson, fighting mosquitoes at night and black flies through the day. On the 10th of July, we came away from the mountains, bag and baggage, arriving at the lake shore, as we then termed it, before noon. Mr. Harlow had arrived with quite a number of mechanics, some goods, lots of money, and what was better than all, we got a glimpse of some female faces. We were all much excited and buoyant with the hope of a bright future before us. At 1 o'clock of that day, we com­menced clearing the site of the present city of Marquette, which we called Worcester, in honor of Mr. Harlow's native city. We began by chopping off the trees and brush at the point of rocks near the brick blacksmith shop just south of the shore and of the Cleveland Company's ore docks. We cut the trees close to the ground, and then threw them bodily over the bank on to the lake shore, and thus began the construction of a dock."

This dock, which was the first built in the city, was finished in three days and a half. But the builders had not learned by experience that trunks of trees and gravel will not make a durable pier on the shore of Lake Supe­rior; and they were astonished to find on the next morning, after it was entirely completed, that it had been wafted away during the night to parts unknown.

In July, 1850, the Marquette Company's forge was com­pleted, and commenced making blooms. A number of dwellings and shops had by this time been built, and a small pier at which steamers could laud. This still exists and forms the shore end of the Cleveland Company's mer­chandise pier.

During 1851 and 1852, there was little development of this infant iron industry. I quote again from Mr. White's account: "A few houses, a stumpy road winding along the lake shore, a forge which burnt up after impoverishing its first owners; a trail westward, just passable for wagons, leading to another forge (still more unfortunate in that it did not burn up) and to the undeveloped iron hills beyond; a few hundred people, uncertain of the future; these were all there was of Marquette in 1851-52." But in these years and the year following, our infant settlement received the accession of some of its best citizens, who are with us to this day. Many of them who came here young and empty-handed have made their way to well-earned prosperity. Among others it may not be invidious to men­tion Timothy T. Hurley and D. H. Merritt, who have benefited the city as well as themselves by their energy and enter­prise.

In 1851, the late Homan B. Ely first proposed the build­ing of a railroad from the iron mines to Marquette, in order that the iron ore of our mountains might be shipped to furnaces on the coal fields near the lower lakes. The project at the time was regarded by many as visionary, but was supported and urged by John Burt and some others as practicable. In the year 1852, Mr. Ely had a survey made of the line and found a practicable route, and there being at that time no general railroad law in this State, he under­took the construction of the road as an individual enter­prise. In the same year, a grant of 750,000 acres of land was made to the State of Michigan for the purpose of building the Sault Ste. Marie Canal, This work was put under contract in the following year and completed in 1855.

Immediately after the passage of the general railroad law of this State, in 1855, Mr. Ely's railroad was incorpo­rated under the name of the Iron Mountain Railroad, and John Burt became its first President. Cornelius Donkers­ley was its first Superintendent, and so remained for many years. In the following year, the enterprise was strength­ened by the accession of Joseph S. Fay, or Boston; Edwin Parsons, of New York; Lewis H. Morgan, of Rochester, N. Y., and some other capitalists, who furnished the neces­sary means for finishing the road to the Lake Superior Mine, to which place it was completed in 1857. Mr. Ely did not live to see this work finished; he died suddenly at his home in this city, in October, 1856.

The Iron Mountain Railroad was subsequently merged, by consolidation, into the Bay de Noquet & Marquette Railroad; this became later the Marquette & Ontonagon Railroad, which extended its line as far as Lake Michi­gamme, and subsequently (in 1872) became consolidated with the Houghton & Ontonagon Railroad, under the name of the Marquette, Houghton & Ontonagon Railroad Com­pany. This company's line extends from Marquette to L'Anse, under the Presidency of Samuel Sloan, of New York, and the general management of Mr. Samuel Schoch, of this city.

The next iron company organized after the Marquette Iron Company was the Lake Superior Iron Company, whose articles were filed March 13, 1853. The late Mr. Ely and John Burt and his brothers were the leading pro­prietors in the company. This company acquired, by pur­chase, the pier and ore trestlework first known as the "Ely Dock," on the site of the railroad's merchandise pier, which they used for ore shipments until it was destroyed by the great fire of June, 1868.

Next in order of organization came the Cleveland Iron Mining Company, whose articles were filed March 28, 1853. Its principal proprietors were Dr. M. L. Hewitt, of this city, and John Outhwaite and Samuel L. Mather, of Cleve­land, Ohio. This company, which succeeded to the prop­erty and franchises of the old Marquette Iron Company, built a trestlework for shipping ore immediately after the completion of the railroad upon the site of their present pier. This pier and trestlework were rebuilt and extended four years since, making the present commodious ore pier, which is 1,200 feet in length, with 100 pockets and a work­ing capacity of 4,000 tons per day.

In 1864, W. L. Wetmore, upon a tract leased from A. R. Harlow, opened the New York Mine, of which he and Samuel J. TiIden, of New York, have remained the proprie­tors until the present time. The Jackson, the Lake Supe­rior and the Cleveland Companies were engaged in mining and shipping ore for several years before any other com­panies and for this reason are still sometimes called the "three old companies."

In the year 1864, the Peninsula Railroad of which Charles T. Harvey may be called the originator, was com­pleted from Negaunee to Escanaba. Up to that year the Jackson Iron Company shipped its ore to Marquette, over the trestlework and pier known as "the long dock," or "Jackson Dock," on the site of the present Grace furnace dock. Each of the three old companies thus had its pier for shipping ore. Up to the year 1865, the railroad com­pany had no pier of its own at Marquette, either for ore or merchandise. In that year, the company built a combined ore and merchandise pier on the site of the present ore pier, but of not more than half its length. This was burned in the fire of 1868. After the fire, the railroad company purchased the Lake Superior Company's pier, and rebuilt it exclusively for merchandise. They then re­built their own exclusively for an ore pier. The present pier, which is one of the largest and best in the world, is 1,222 feet long, 38 feet high, with 136 ore pockets, and a working capacity of 6,000 tons per day.

In the year 1862, the business of mining and shipping ore became for the first time large enough for the produc­tion to be economized and profitable enough to admit of any returns upon the capital invested. This was the first year of dividends. Meanwhile, many of the first investors, as for example the members of the original Jackson Com­pany, had lost their whole interest in the property before it became valuable. In material and industrial develop­ment, as in war, it seldom happens that new vantage-ground is gained without the suffering and loss of those who are the first to occupy it.

After 1862 followed ten years of great prosperity, checked only by the great fire of June 11, 1868, which de­stroyed in a few hours all the business blocks then in exist­ence north of Superior street, the railroad shops, which then occupied the north half of the block between Front, Main, Third and Spring streets, and the railroad and Lake Superior Companies' piers. None of us will ever forget how we fought and toiled through that sad night, till the gray morning broke upon our smoke grimed faces and blackened town. During this period, many iron companies were organized, which the limits of this address do not ad­mit of my recounting in detail. Among them may be men­tioned the Pittsburgh & Lake Angeline, the Washington, the Champion, the Republic, the Michigamme, the Saginaw and the Spurr Iron Companies, which became large pro­ducers. The production of iron ore and charcoal pig iron continued steadily to increase until in 1873, more than a quarter of all the iron produced in the United States was made from the ores of Marquette County.

The following shows the total shipments of iron ore from the Lake Superior mines in 1875, together with the value at the mines; Shipments, 910,840 tons, and value of mines, $3,540,499.

The total product of all the mines from 1856 to 1875, was 8,619,519 tons.

The total shipments of pig iron from the furnaces of Lake Superior, in 1875, was 81,753 tons, valued at $2,248,264. The aggregate shipments of pig iron up to the close of 1875, was 592,802 tons.

The following is a statement in gross tons of the aggre­gate yield of the mines and furnaces of this district from 1856 to 1875, inclusive, together with the value of the same:



Iron Ore

Pig Iron

Ore and Pig Iron












































































































Since the commercial revulsion, which began with the panic of 1873, in common with almost every other interest in every other section, our business and prosperity have declined. We have suffered more than most other sections because the iron interest, upon which we chiefly depend, has been more severely affected than any other of the great industries of the country, and is one of the slowest to re­cover. But prosperity will come hither again. Civiliza­tion does not go backward, and iron is its minister. Cour­age, then, and patience for the better time corning.

The Legislature of Michigan, on the 9th of March, 1843, divided the Upper Peninsula into six counties, viz., Mackinac, Chippewa, Schoolcraft, Marquette, Ontonagon and Delta, attaching for judicial purposes Schoolcraft, Mar­quette and Ontonagon to Chippewa, and Delta to Mackinac.

This act was amended March 19, 1845, changing the boundaries of some of the counties, and establishing Houghton County.

Acts of the Legislature were passed in 1847 and 1848, or­ganizing Marquette Township out of Marquette County, and providing for the first election to be held at the house of Lu­cius A. Thayer, but nothing appears to have been done under these acts, since we find that another act was passed by the Legislature April 17, 1851, to perfect a separate organiza­tion for Marquette County, and providing for the election of county officers on the second Monday of June, 1851; organizing the township of Carp River, and making the County Board consist of the Supervisors of Marquette and Carp River Townships, and the Justices of the Peace of Marquette Township whose term would soonest expire. We have no record of this election.

But on the 4th of November, 1851, at the general election, county officers were voted for. Sixty-two votes were cast, and the following county officers were elected: Philo M. Everett, Judge of Probate; James D. Watt, Sheriff; C. C. Eddy and E. B. Gray, Coroners; Peter White, Register of Deeds; Charles Johnson, County Treasurer; John Burt, County Surveyor. October 5, 1852, another election was held for county officers. Besides the re-election of most of the officers of the preceding year, Heman B. Fly was elected Circuit Court Commissioner.

P. M. Everett was the first Supervisor of this township, and the first recorded meeting of the Board of Supervisors was Monday, September 13, 1852.

The first deed was recorded in the county records January 20, 1852, and the first mortgage July 13, 1853. The first marriage of record in the county was that of Robert Nelson and Sarah Ann Johnson, December 8, 1850, the ceremony being performed by J. Morse, minister of the Gospel.

The constitution of 1850 set off the entire Upper Peninsula into a judicial district, and provided for a District Judge to hold his office for six years, and a District Attorney to hold his office for two years. This election took place on the last Tuesday of September, 1851, and Daniel Goodwin, of Detroit, was elected District Judge. He had been President of the Constitutional Convention of 1850. and a former Justice of the Supreme Court of the State.

Judge Goodwin held the first term of court ever held in this county on the 5th of August, 1852, at the office of the late Heman B. Ely, a small building still in existence adjoining the Northwestern Hotel The following is a list of the grand jury ordered on that day, the first summoned in this county: Reuben H. Barrett, Joseph Bignall, Philo M. Everett, Robert J. Graveraet, Amos R. Harlow, D. M. Kel­logg, Oliver La Plant, Azel Lathrop, Herman R. Meade, John McGregor, Charles Parish, Silas C. Smith, Sidney R. Smith, Robert Robinson, Henry F. Sherburn, Freeman Grist.

The Following Petit Jurors were also summoned: Ruel Knapp, Norman E. Eddy, Sands G. Cole, Webster Eaton, Francis Rensen, William Boals, Edmund Remington, George Rublein, James Rearick, William S. McCombs, Jo­seph MoCutcheon, Henry F. McCarty, Joshua Hodgkins. Nahum Keyes, Daniel Stearns, Louis Schweitzer, Charles Edwards, William D. Holt, Peter White, Edward Warner, Jacob Turney, James E. Peters and William Abernethy. Three indictments were found at this term-one for murder, one for forgery and one for larceny. Judge Goodwin, the first District Judge, served out his first term, was re-elected, and continued to hold office until the abolition of the District Court, January 1, 1864, by act of the Legislature of March 19, 1863. This act organized the Upper Peninsula in a circuit called the Eleventh Judicial Circuit. The first election of Circuit Judge under this act was held on the first Tuesday of Angust, 1863. Judge Goodwin was then again elected for the new circuit.

By act of the Legislature of February 7, 1865, the counties of Ontonagon, Keweenaw, Houghton and Marquette were detached from the Eleventh Judicial Circuit, and con­stituted the Twelfth Circuit. The late Clarence E. Eddy, of Houghton, was elected Judge of the new circuit at the first election on the first Monday of April, 1865. He held the office until his decease in the autumn of 1868. After his death, the office remained vacant until the spring election of 1869, when James O'Grady, of Houghton, was elected to fill the vacancy for his unexpired term, and also for the new term commencing January 1, 1870. Judge O'Grady served his entire term of six years, and was succeeded as Circuit Judge by our townsman, W. D. Williams, January 1, 1876.

When courts were first held here, there were no resident lawyers. The first resident attorney was Matthew H. May­nard, who settled here June 24, 1855. The next was Peter White, who was admitted to the bar in 1857. Next to him came Dan H. Ball, and next following were James M. Wilkinson and Henry D. Smith. The law business here at an early day was largely conducted by attorneys from Lower Michigan. Among those who were in the habit of travel­ing this circuit were Richard Butler and. A. S. Robertson, of Mount Clemens, H. D. Terry, J. P. C. Emmons and A. W. Buel, of Detroit, and occasionally J. V. Campbell and Ashley Pond, of Detroit.

Marquette remained under its township organization until it received a village charter from the Legislature in 1859. Its government continued under this charter until it obtained a city charter in 1871.

Under the present charter, the government of the city is vested in a Common Council, consisting of a Mayor, a Recorder and two Aldermen from each of the four wards. H. H. Stafford was the first Mayor elected under the new charter. Then succeeded S. P. Ely, who served two years. Then followed A. P. Swineford, who also served two years. The present Mayor and Common Council are well known, but for history's sake I name them: Mayor, James Pickands; Recorder, Joseph H. Primeau; Aldermen, First Ward, A. P. Swineford, Michael Ralph; Second Ward, Thomas E. Cook, Patrick F. Mullaly; Third Ward, H. D. Lyons, Edward Fraser; Fourth Ward, E. F. Eddy, Sidney Adams.


The Board of Fire and Water Commissioners is a separate body, existing under an act of the Leg­islature passed March 2, 1869.

It consists of five members, of whom one retires every year, the vacancy being filled from year to year by election of the Common Council. This board was authorized by the Legislature to borrow money up to $100,000 upon a popular vote in favor of the loan for the purpose of building water works. The loan was voted, and the construction of the present works begun in 1869. The works are upon what is known as the Holly system, of direct pressure by pumping engines through continuous pipes laid throughout the city. In February, 1870, pumping was commenced, although the works were not finished until the July following. The building is situated just west of the Government breakwater, and the supply of water is obtained from a point several hundred feet out in the lake. Thirty-four thousand five hundred and twenty-seven feet of pipe are laid through the city, and fifty-one fire hydrants are placed at intersections of streets and other convenient points. The whole cost of the works has been $112,157. Independently of the protection afforded against fire, this has probably been a judicious and economical expenditure in the promotion of good health in the city by furnishing for domestic use an abundant supply of pure water. The operation of the works, which have been much improved by our own mechanics, has been on the whole constant and satisfactory, although some trouble is experienced in every winter from the freezing of pipes in exposed localities. When the works were first built, there were no data obtainable as to the proper depth to sink the pipes for such a climate as this, and they were laid at a depth of five feet, which has proved insufficient in some localities. At a depth of seven or eight feet, no trouble would have been experienced from the frost.


Our school system, as is known to you, is administered by a board of six Trustees, of whom two are annually elected at the meeting of the school district, which comprises the whole city, in September of each year, the Mode­rator, Director and Assessor (or Treasurer) of the district. The first schoolhouse in the city was built in 1853, on the site of the present Washington Street Schoolhouse. It was afterward enlarged, and was occupied until the building on the same site of the large school house, which was burned last year. The old schoolhouse still exists, and forms part of the modern block on the south side of Washington street, owned by William Herlick, to whom it was sold for removal. As soon as practicable after the burning of the Washington street schoolhouse, the present one was built, making the third upon the same site. The second school building in the city was the old brick schoolhouse built in 1859 on Ridge street, upon the site of the present high school building. This was deemed a large and fine building in its day, but after a few years became the subject of a prejudice, which was probably not well founded, in respect to its strength and security. After one or two efforts to repair and strengthen it sufficiently to regain the public confidence, without success, the school district meeting decided to build a new schoolhouse on the same site. The old building was torn down, and the present schoolhouse, which is one of the finest buildings in the State, was erected in its place. Subsequently to the building of the Washington Street Schoolhouse, the houses on Fisher street and at the rolling-mill were built—all good, serviceable buildings. The total value of school property belonging to the city in 1876 was upward of $100,000. The school organization is that of graded schools, Prof. H. Olcott being Principal, with sixteen teachers in the various departments, and about one thousand one hundred pupils out of 1,500 of school age last on the school census. The school statistics of the city for 1881 are given in other pages.

Thirty-six years ago there was not a soul where Marquette now stands. In June, 1880, the city contained a population of 4,694. In the following review, Mr. Maynard's work points out very distinctly the rate at which the population advances. While engaged in taking a census of the schoolchildren in Marquette recently, Mr. Maynard also took a census of all the inhabitants, and reports having ascertained that our present population is 6,323. Those figures represent the number of people Mr. Maynard found to be actual residents of the city, though he does not claim for them absolute accuracy. It is likely that our population is really in excess of that number but, regarding 6,323 as the maximum, it shows a gratifying growth in the city since the census of 1880, when its population was 4,694, according to the official figures, the increase being 1,629. In the intervening two years, there have been many causes operating to retard the growth of the town, such as high rents, scarcity of houses, etc., while no systematic effort has been made to encourage people to come here either to live or to engage in business. Yet its growth has been over 333 per cent in that time and would have been over 50 per cent if the conditions were at all favorable. The improvement in business is even more satisfactory. We hope to see a "building boom" inaugurated in Marquette another season that will send the city well along toward the goal of municipal magnitude in population and commercial importance, toward which it is steadily reaching.


The first regular religious services in Marquette, so far as we have been able to ascertain, were held by the Rev. William Benson, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in the year 1851. In that year, the Methodist Episcopal Church here was organized, and Mr. Benson was its first minister. He was succeeded by Rev. H. N. Brown, and Rev. A. C. Shaw followed him. Between 1851 and 1853, the services of this church were held in the upper part of the old Marquette House, which stood near the corner of Lake and Superior streets. After the schoolhouse on Washing­ton street was built, which was in 1853, the services were held there until the building of their church on Washington street in 1856. The building of this church was largely due to the energy and zeal of the Rev. A.C. Shaw, who hewed and drew its timbers with his own hands. The following is the succession of ministers in this church since that time: Revs. W. O. Parker, F. W. May, William Fox, P. O. Johnson, E. E. Caster, William Mahan, I. N. Elwood, J. Hankinson, R. R. Richards, J. M. Johnson, H. C. Northrop, H. S. White, John Russell, C. H. Morgan, and the present pastor, P. Ross Parrish. In 1873, the present handsome and commodious church on the corner of Ridge and Front streets was finished, and the Washington street church sold to the French Catholics. This building is said to have cost $25,000. The style is pointed English, con­structed of Marquette brown stone, with towers. The society numbers 125 members, and the Sabbath school claims a similar number.

The following relations of Mr. Pitezell's early visits to Carp River as a missionary of the Methodist Church pertain to the history of that church at Marquette: In the fall of 1844, Mr. Pitezell had coasted along the shore near Marquette with his family on their way to Kewawenon; a short distance to the west we were wind bound two days and a half. At that time, no traces of civilization were to be seen at that point; from Sault Ste. Marie to La Pointe, there was but one Protestant station where God was statedly worshiped in public, and that one was Kewawenon. In January, 1846, he passed on snow shoes over the ground where Marquette stands now to visit a band of Indians at Grand Island. Then there was no trace of civilization at Carp River. He remarks that he can never forget the day of his arrival at the Carp. He was excessively fatigued, feet were badly blistered, and when he reached the wig­wam of Mah-je-ge-zhik he was so rejoiced that tears in­voluntarily crowded to his eyes.

In 1849, he revisited the district; he states, after a hard walk of five hours, through woods most of the way, and on snow shoes, we reached Carp River. Here was a sawmill, a French family, two or three Americans and a few Indians—the Waishkees. As they were old acquaintances, they were very glad to see us, and we must drink with them some sha-gah-mit-ta—hot drink, either tea or coffee. To this proposal we readily acceded, eating with our tea some bread and pork. Then we had a season of prayer, and resumed our journey. A stiff, cold wind was in our faces, and the ice most of the way was jammed together nearly perpendicular like knives, and made it hard walking and trying to the feet. Reached Naomikong before night, and put up with my old friend Menomonee, the chief, lately from Grand Island. Here were two other quite good log houses, and the Indians, generally, appeared comfortably situated. Several called to see us, and kept us talking till the evening was spent.

The Protestant Episcopal Church Society (St. Paul's) of Marquette was organized August 18, 1856, with Rev. Henry Stafford presiding. P. M. Everett, H. H. Stafford were elected Wardens; J. J. St. Clair, Peter White, C. A. Judd, G. H., Blakes, C. T. Harvey, A. Brooks and William Ferguson, Vestrymen. In 1858, a reorganization took place under the name St. Paul's Church of the village of Marquette. The signers of the articles of association in­cluded Peter White, Henry Stafford, A. Pulver, S. C. Smith, P. M. Everett, J. J. St. Clair, H. C. Stafford, M. L. Hew­itt and A. Campbell. In Mr. Ely's history of the village, he refers to the foundation of the society.

The first services of the Protestant Episcopal Church in this place of which I have learned, were held on the steamer Napoleon at the Cleveland pier, in the summer of 1851. Occasional, services in the open air occurred during the next three years. The first service mentioned in the records of .the church was held on board the steamer Planet, by Rev. Mr., Arnault, August 15, 1855. The church was organized by Bishop McCloskey in August, 1856, and Rev. Henry Safford became its first rector. Services were held during the first year in the old schoolhouse on Washington street upon alternate Sundays with the Methodists. In 1857, their first church was finished upon the site of the present church on the corner of High and Ridge streets. Mr. Safford was succeeded in 1860 by Rev. Josiah Phelps. Rev. Dr. Charles Fay became rector in 1867; he was suc­ceeded by Rev. W. R. Pickman in 1870, who was followed by Rev. B. F. Fleetwood, now of Chicago, in 1873. The present rector, Rev. E. R. Bishop, was appointed in 1877. The Episcopal Church, which was finished in 1875 at a cost of about $50,000, is one of the best specimens of church architecture and one of the finest buildings in the State. It is built of the brown sandstone of this place. The rectory is located immediately north of the church edifice. Both buildings point out the congregation to be zealous as well as liberal.

The report to the convention, published in 1882, is as follows: Baptized—Infants, 10; adults, 2; total, 12. Con­firmed, 9. Communicants—Last reported, 137; admitted in the parish, 14; received from other parishes, 3; total added, 17; died, 2: removed from the parish, 4; total lost, 4; present number, 148. Marriages, 8. Burials, 11. Public services—Sundays, 101; holy and other days, 72; total, 173. Holy Communion—Sundays, 47; holy days, 3; private, 6; total, 56. Congregation Families, 79; individuals not included in families, 22; total of souls, 475. Sunday school—Teachers and officers, 14; scholars, 129; average attendance, 96. Bible class—Teacher, 1 ; scholars, 6.

Parochial Organizations—Ladies' Guild, 33 members.

Communion alms not otherwise reported, $124.79; Sun­day school, $47; Rector's salary, $2,400; music, $650; other current expenses, $374.30; church building or im­provement, $1,394; rectory or improvement thereon, $1,­100; church tower fund, $800; for purchase of real estate for hospital and school buildings, $3,000. Total for parochial purposes, $9,990.09.

The first services of the Roman Catholic Church were held in a log house on Spring street in the year 1853 by Father Minie. In 1855, the first Catholic Church was built on Fourth street, near the present cathedral. It was a plain building, of which the priest occupied the upper part, and said mass in the lower. Father Puree, the first settled priest, came in 1855; afterward followed Father Thiele, in 1864; Father Jacker, in 1866; Father Fox, in 1868; Father Eis, in 1870; Father Brown, in 1873; Father Comtois, in 1875, and Father Rousseau, in 1876. The French Catholic Church was organized in 1872, of which Father Berube was pastor. The diocese was constituted the Diocese of Marquette instead of that of Sault Ste. Marie, and the late venerable Bishop Baraga removed here in 1864. The death of Bishop Baraga occurred January 19, 1868; his successor, Right Rev. Ignatius Mark, was con­secrated February 7, 1869. The first service held in the late cathedral church on Superior street was the midnight mass. Christmas, 1864; this was before the building was entirely completed, which was in the following year. This building was destroyed by fire October 2, 1879. Right Rev. John Vertin was consecrated Bishop September 14, 1879. Under his direction, the building of a new cathe­dral was undertaken; the foundations were laid in March, 1881, and on June 19 following the corner stone was put in position by the Bishop. The site selected was that on which the old church stood. The new building will form, when completed, the most imposing church edifice north of Detroit. The length is 150 feet and the width sixty-five feet, interior measurement. The height to apex of roof is over seventy-nine feet; height of principal or clock tower, 142 feet; height of second tower, 137 feet, and width of frontage, eighty feet. The vestry and the chapel are each sixteen feet square. The building is constructed of variegat­ed Marquette stone, and work is carried out under the di­rection of Bishop Vertin, Thomas McKeown, Jacob Frie and B. Neidhart, by James Lawrence, Superintendent of Building. It is supposed that this northern cathedral will cost over $100,000, and when completed will take a place among the great church edifices of the West.

The sketch of the first Bishop of Marquette may take its place with the history of the Catholic Church of this city. The biography, as given in this work, was written by Rev. Ed Jacker:

Right Rev. Frederic Baraga, Bishop of Sault Ste. Marie and Marquette, a descendant of an untitled but old and highly respected Slavonic family, was born June 29, 1797, in Treffen Castle, the property of his parents, in the Aus­trian Province of Carneolia.

After a five years' study of the law at the University of Vienna, he passed over to that of theology, and being or­dained a priest at the age of twenty-six years, he hence­forth devoted all the energies of his masculine mind and his fiery soul to the work of a Christian missionary. To combat ignorance, error and vice, to stir up souls to the pursuit of the "one thing necessary," which he never tired placing before his hearers' or readers' minds; to alleviate distress and spread blessings around him to the full extent of his ability and of his means; such were the only passions of his life.

Fond though he was of study, prayer and meditation, Father Baraga was eminently a man of action. Persistent, indefatigable, undaunted by dangers and difficulties, and at the same time conscientious almost to a fault, he no sooner recognized what appeared to him the path of duty, than he pursued and followed it to the end. The vehemence and almost rigidity of his character was happily blended with qualities oftener met with in men of a softer temper—great benevolence and forgetfulness of self, an almost womanly tenderness, the candor and simplicity of a child. All this, joined to great urbanity and an unstudied dignity of bearing, forced from every one who came in contact—even in unpleasant contact—with him, the acknowledge­ment that he had had to deal with a gentleman.

With such a disposition and blessed as he was with great bodily vigor and a constitution of iron, Father Baraga felt instinctively drawn toward a field where his uncom­mon powers could be utilized for the alleviation of an un­common misery, and brought into full play in the combat with more than ordinary difficulties. This was the Indian mission, an employment for which his great linguistic tal­ent likewise fitted him in a high degree.

Having left to his country as a mark of his zeal a book of devotion, still highly esteemed by Slavonic readers, he embarked for America late in 1830, and arrived in New York on the last day of the year. His career in this country can be but briefly sketched. After four mouths spent in Cincinnati employed in missionary work and in the study of the English language, Father Baraga proceeded to Arbre Croche, now Harbor Springs, Emmet Co., Mich., where a mission had lately been opened among the numerous Ottawa Indians settled on and in the neighborhood of Lit­tle Traverse Bay. In two years and a half he made him­self master of their dialect, published a prayer and hymn book for them, and added to his rapidly increasing flock most of the Indians on the Beaver Group and other islands in Lake Michigan, and those settled on the North Manistee River (now Manistique, Schoolcraft County,) in Upper Michigan.

Having placed the Arbre Croche mission on a solid and permanent footing, and secured a successor, he hastened to the Grand River, and in spite of great difficulties caused chiefly by the corrupting influence of unprincipled liquor dealers, soon converted a considerable part of the Ottawas living in the neighborhood of what has since become the city of Grand Rapids. His missionary excursions from that new center extended as far as Muskegon, where he also built a little church. The chapel and dwelling house in Grand Rapids being completed, he again left his flock in other hands, and set out for the island of La Pointe, then the headquarters of the Northwestern Fur Company on Lake Superior, and the rendezvous of a large number of Ojibwa Indians. Steam navigation having not as yet found its way into that lake, Father Baraga's journey from Sault Ste. Marie to La Pointe required nearly three weeks. He arrived July 27, 1835. Since the departure of Father Marquette in 1671, no missionary, as far as known, had visited the western part of Lake Superior. The ground, however, was prepared to some extent by the pretence of many Cana­dian voyageurs, who had taken Indian wives. Thus the work of conversion went on with great rapidity, and in a short time another band of Indians in the neighborhood of Fond du Lac (now Superior City, Wis.)  was also gathered in. Having soon become familiar with the Otchipwe dia­lect of the Algonquin language, Father Baraga improved the leisure hours of the following winter by writing books—a prayer, hymn book and catechism, and a Biblical history—in the Otchipwe language, and two other little works in German and Slavonic. These books he printed while on a visit to Europe early in 1837. The La Pointe and Fond du Lac missions being now, after eight years' labor, so well established that the charge could be entrusted to a man of ordinary ability, Father Baraga accepted an invitation ten­dered him by a part of the Keweenaw band of Ojibwas, and in 1843 founded his last and favorite mission of L'Anse, now called after his name, Baraga. A Methodist mission, established a few years previously near the head of Kewee­naw Bay, had gathered in but a small portion of natives. Most of the remaining pagans were deeply sunken in drunk­enness, and its concomitant vices. Father Baraga by word and example, being himself remarkably abstemious, and a sworn foe to intoxicating drink, succeeded in reforming those who placed themselves under his guidance. Besides the natives of the place, a number of families from the On­tonagon River, from Vieux Desert, Lake Flamheau and even more distant parts of the interior, came to settle around the little church on a tract of land bought for them by the missionary. To wean them from their roving habits, he built a substantial log house for every new-comer, and also endeavored to accustom them to gardening and farm­ing. In this, however, he failed, through want of personal familiarity with agricultural pursuits, and left the work to be accomplished by one of his successors. In the L'Anse Mission, Father Baraga wrote, besides a larger collection of religious and moral instructions for the Indians, his invaluable grammar and dictionary of the Otchipwe language, the first ever published. At the same time, he was himself, as in most of his former missions, the teacher of his flock in the arts of reading, writing and arithmetic. And in this mission he hoped to conclude his days, but Providence had decreed otherwise.

The discovery or rather the opening up of the rich copper deposits of Upper Michigan, almost contemporary with the establishment of the L'Anse Mission, opened also a new field for the employment of Father Baraga's talents and acquirements, and for the exertion of his zeal. Being the only priest within reach, the Irish, German, French and other Catholics who in fast increasing numbers flocked to the mines, soon applied for his pastoral services. That new flock extended over what now forms the counties of Ontonagon, Houghton and Keweenaw. For eight years he regularly visited them from L'Anse, traveling, as circum­stances required, by canoe or on foot on snow-shoes on the frozen lakes and rivers, on Indian trails or through almost pathless woods, often bending under a load of books, altar furniture and other requisites of the mission. His arrival in camps and rising villages was hailed not only by those of his flock, but also by others who admired the unassum­ing, self-devoted and disinterested missionary, and even came to listen to his simple and unadorned but always earnest and often incisive addresses in the three languages spoken in most places.

The influx and increase of the white population led to the erection, first of an apostolic vicariate, 1853, and four years later of an Episcopal See for Upper Michigan. Thus Father Baraga (the choice could hardly have failed to fall on him) became chief Pastor of almost every flock successively gathered and governed by himself.

Having received the Episcopal consecration in Cincinnati November 1, 1853, and made a second and last jour­ney to Europe, he took up his residence in Sault Ste. Marie, then a central point, since the jurisdiction over the missions in the northern part of Lower Michigan and others in Wisconsin and Minnesota had been given to him by the neigh­boring Bishops. Accordingly, his yearly pastoral visits ex­tended on one side to the head and part of the north shore of Lake Superior; on the other side to Grand Traverse Bay, on Lake Michigan, and to Thunder Bay, on Lake Hu­ron. In 1864, he was, upon his own request, transferred to Marquette, with the title of Bishop of Sault Ste. Marie and Marquette. Bishop Baraga's administrative and pas­toral cares and labors, of which space forbids us to give even the briefest sketch, bore more severely on his consti­tution than all preceding hardships had done. From the effects of an eight days' exposure to rain and cold on a boat journey about four years previous to his death, he never fully recovered. While present at the Plenary Coun­cil of Baltimore, October, 1866, he was stricken by apo­plexy, and, although rallying sufficiently to make his way home, he remained in a very feeble condition, and gradu­ally sank until a paralysis of the lungs carried him off at an early hour of Sunday, January 18, 1868. On the 30th, he was buried in his cathedral, with great marks of respect exhibited by the whole population of Marquette; among other things, all shops and business places being kept closed that day.

Bishop Baraga died poor, as he had lived, his patrimony and his personal revenues having all been spent for charitable and religious purposes.

The Presbyterian Church.—The first Presbyterian society of Marquette was organized February 13, 1855. Among the first members were A. R. Harlow, Charles Johnson, J. W. Edwards, M. H. Maynard, G. P. Cummings, S. P. Ely, H. Wells, A. G. Ross and Charles T. Harvey. The name of William Valentine appears as witness to the record of first election of Trustees. Another record of organiza­tion appears under date November 6, 1855, in which the names of Morgan L. Hewitt, Charles S. Cushing, Patrick D. Bissel, C. T. Harvey, A. R. Harlow and Charles John­son appear. Mr. Ely, in his reference to this society, writes as follows: "Occasional Presbyterian services were held in 1852 by the Rev. Mr. Bobb and Rev. Mr. Morse in the unfinished house of the late Heman B. Ely, and in the open air in the grove near it. This church was not, how­ever, formally organized until June 15, 1857. Of its original membership of fourteen, Mr. and Mrs. A. R. Har­low, Mr. G. P. Cummings and Mr. Ambrose Campbell are the only ones who still remain here. Rev. Mr. Woodruff officiated for a short time after the organization of the church. Rev. C. B. Stevens became its minister in 1858. For sixteen months, services were held in the court house. In January, 1860, a small church building on the corner of Third and Washington was finished, which was occupied until the church on the corner of Bluff and Front streets was finished in 1868. Rev. F. H. Adams succeeded Mr. Stevens in 1865, and was followed by Rev. Herrick John­son, who officiated during the winter of 1867-68. He was succeeded by the Rev. Mr. Little, who was followed by the Rev. D. S. Banks, the present pastor of the church. The present church building on Front Street was begun in 1867 and completed in 1868. It is a large red brick structure, semi-gothic in style, and well finished.

The Baptist Church in this place was organized in the summer of 1860, and the church on Front Street was built and dedicated in 1862. The first pastor was the Rev. A. C. Armstrong, who has been succeeded by the Rev. C. A. Anderson, John Mathews, D. A. Randall, Jonathan Rowley, C. Hulburt and Rev. Charles Button. Rev. Mr. Tup­per is the present pastor.

On March 16, 1865, a record shows that Samuel Peck, H. A. Burt, M. A. Allen, W. Finney and Charles S. Webb were elected Trustees. The church adopted articles of association February 5, 1869. The original members were A. G. Benedict, J. Matthews, J. W. Wyckoff, W. Finney, A. J. Lobdell, Eliza Stratton, Janette H. Lyons, George E. Tracy, A. J. Burt, Delia Peck, Ella Hampton, James Ma­han, S. N. Bronson, Lida M. Bronson, William Burt, Fanny Humphrey, A. S. Westlake, N. W. Slocum, Will­iam H. Volk, George W. Benedict, Samuel Peck, David Campau, J. M. Stiles, Nancy H. Brown, Mrs. M. A. Finney, Lizzie Matthews, F. Harvey, Hattie Harvey, L. E. Osborn, John W. Spear, Hiram A. Burt, N. A. Holland, E. C. Bur­rows, N. S. Harvey, S. P. Harvey, A. M. Brotherton, Emma Holland, Joseph Atkinson, Clark Stratton, Angus Rankin, Sarah J. Graves, Louisa A. Brown, T. O. Hampton and Frank Wheeler.

The German Evangelical Lutheran. Trinity Church.—Among the other religious societies represented in the city, the principal is the German Lutheran. Services are held occasionally in the old Protestant Episcopal Church. In October, 1881, a meeting of the members, Charles Ullrich, Frank Tuch, F. Jacobs, Fred Doerr and Got Winkler were elected Trustees. Rev. Edward F. E. Heinecke was pastor.


The ancient and wide-spread order of Masonry has been represented here since 1857. In July of that year, Marquette Lodge, No. 101, of Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons, was organized under dispensation of Grand Master Levi Cook, and was chartered at the annual communication of the Grand Lodge in January, 1858. Its first initiate, our townsman M. H. Maynard, is the present Grand Master of Masons of this State. The first Master of the Marquette Lodge was the late James J. St. Clair, who has been suc­ceeded by Matthew H. Maynard, Andrew G. Clark, Samuel M. Billings, Peter C. Parkinson, Francis M. Moore and Mirza R. Manhard. The present membership of the lodge is 127. Marquette Chapter, No. 43, of Royal Arch Masons, was chartered by the Grand Chapter in January, 1866. Its first High Priest was M. H. Maynard, who has been suc­ceeded by James E. Dalliba and Francis M. Moore. Its present membership is 102. The Lake Superior Com­mandery, No. 30, of Knights Templar, was chartered by the Grand Commandery in June, 18i 3. Its first Com­mander was James E. Dalliba, who was succeeded by M. H. Maynard. Its present membership is thirty-nine. The spacious and elegant hall belonging to the order, in the Adams Building, Front Street, is well known to most of you. Its fittings and furniture and the regalia of the several branches of the order are very elegant, and second in no re­spect to those of any other city in the State.

Lake Superior Grand Lodge of Good Templars.—Perhaps in this organization is clearly demonstrated the fact that there are two peninsulas of Michigan, as can be represented elsewhere. From the Lower Peninsula to the Upper, the change is as great as can be found between two distinct States. The subordinate lodges of the Upper Peninsula, not being able to receive the necessary aid for permanent work from the Grand Lodge of Michigan, on account of their remote location, were set apart by the Right Worthy General Grand Lodge, with the consent of the Grand Lodge of Michigan, and organized at Marquette July 26, 1881, by P. R. W. G. T. John Russell as the Grand Lodge of Lake Superior Independent Order Good Templars, with jurisdiction over the entire Upper Peninsula, embracing at that time thirteen lodges, three of which soon ceased to exist.

The membership in November, 1881, was only 467. In July, 1882, it had reached over 800, and numbered nineteen lodges. All expenses of the organization have been met, and a fund of $82.35 remains in the treasury. At its first annual session, held at Ishpeming July 11 and 12, 1882, the following officers were elected:

Grand Lodge Independent Order Good Templars.—G. W. C. T., John Hamilton, Calumet; G. W. C., W. E. Clarke, Manistique; G. W. V. T., Mrs. A. D. Mills, Ishpeming; G. W. Secretary, C. H. T. Atwood, Eagle River; G. W. T., Henry Davis, Stoneville; G. S. J. T., Francis Blackwell, Norway; G. Chaplain, C. W. Burnham, Manis­tique; G. M., R. Williams, Republic; G. G., Miss Martha Dower, Republic; G. S., J. W. Beardsley, Quinnesec; A. G. Secretary, Miss Jennie Bennett, Central Mine; D. G. M., Miss Mary Peck, Champion; P. G. W. C. T., J. C. Funston, Ishpeming. Its second annual session will be at Calumet the second Tuesday of July, 1883.

Independent Order of Odd Fellows.—Marquette Lodge No. 108, I. O. O. F., was instituted June 22, 1867. The following were the charter members: S. A. Murch, L. E. Osborn, H. C. Taylor, James Whiting, H. D. Lyons. Present membership forty-two. Officers at present: N. G., O. D. Bishop; V. G., R. R. Todd; Secretary, D. Sutton; Treasurer, H. Doer; R. S. N. G., G. W. Joslin; L. S. N. G., H. B. Dye; R. S. V. G., James Hoey; L. S. V. G., C. M. Everett.

The Ancient Order of Hibernians, Division No. 3, of Marquette, adopted the articles of association February 8, 1882. The original members were Martin E. Ford, John Reardon, Felix O'Hagan, Eugene Swift and John F. Carey.

St. Jean de Baptiste Association was organized June 16, 1875, with J. H. Primeau, Joseph A. Vannier, Pierre Primeau, A. Desjardins, Joseph A. Desjardins, Theophile Bastien, Cyrills Martin, Norbert Proule, OIlivier Villeneuve, Antoine Primeau and Joseph Balduc original mem­bers.

L' Union Canadien Francaise was organized July 20, 1881, with thirteen members.

The Library and Scientific Association of Marquette was organized January 27, 1857. Henry Stafford, J. J. St. Clair, Peter White, M. H. Maynard, G. H. Blake, A. H. Jones and L. D. Jackson were the originators. Peter White was elected President and M. H. Maynard, Corresponding Secretary.


Among our public improvements, the most costly and important is the breakwater in front of the harbor, built by the Government of the United States. The surveys for the work were made in 1867; the length of the breakwater was fixed at 2,000 feet, at an estimated cost of $240,000. This improvement was authorized by Congress, an appro­priation made, and the work begun in 1868. The inception of this improvement was largely due to the intelligent and energetic efforts of Messrs. John and Hiram A. Burt. The breakwater was completed last year to its full length of 2,000 feet, and contrary to the general rule with such works it has been built for less than its estimated cost.

The city gas works were built in 1869.

The Northwestern telegraph line, which gave us our first telegraphic communication with the South and East, was built in 1865, and the Marquette, Mackinac & Sault Ste. Marie line was completed in 1873.

The Marquette, Mackinaw & Sault Ste. Marie Railroad line was surveyed in 1873, but by reason of the financial condition of the country it has not yet proved practicable to obtain the capital with which to build the road. In 1881, the D., M. &. M. was built.


Mr. Ely, in the centennial address from which we have already quoted at length, makes the following eloquent reference to the men of mark among the early settlers now passed away:

"It is fit upon this occasion to make mention of some of those names in our history whose work of life is wrought and ended. Among those from this place who served in the army during the late civil war, Capt. Moody will be well remembered by the earliest settlers as a man full of courage and energy. More of you remember Col. Town, a gallant and devoted man, and an officer who never spared or took account of himself. Rev. A. C. Shaw was a faithful Chap­lain; his life, full of usefulness, has but recently terminated. Andrew Pulver died in prison, and sleeps in an unknown grave. Michael Belloir died on the field of battle. Albert Jackson died of wounds received in the service. Duncan and Donald Cameron were trusty scouts, who returned home to die from the labors and exposures of their service. D. G. Maynard went unharmed through all the battles, in which he won the rank of Captain, to give up his life here in an act of heroism which can never be forgotten. All of you who were here in the summer of 1867, well remember the evening excursion of the towing steamer Jay C. Morse, with a happy party of fifty young people from many differ­ent families, which ended so tragically. Midway between. Partridge Island and the main land, while running at full speed, she struck a hidden rock, staving in her bows and throwing two ladies overboard by the recoil. Mr. Maynard instantly plunged into the water to save them, but the tug drifted toward them and away from him, and they were speedily taken on board. Meanwhile, the steamer was rapidly sinking; she had no small boats, and her sinking meant the destruction of all on board. Maynard was sup­porting himself upon a plank in the water at a little dis­tance, and could see that she was sinking. The bow of the boat was headed toward Partridge Island, and the loss of time in turning to pick up Maynard would have proved fatal to all on board. He shouted, "I'm all right; go ahead." The boat with her last breath of steam spent had just momentum enough to ground herself on the shore of Partridge Island, and the party was safe. Maynard swam and drifted with the wind for the mainland, which was about half a mile away, but never reached it. He sleeps beneath the blue waters of Lake Superior, and the honor which all men pay the horoic dead is his enduring monument. The late Alexander Campbell was a man of great ability and industry, who devoted himself while his strength remained with untiring zeal to all enterprises and objects of a public nature. His death was a serious loss to this community.

Mrs. Martha W. Bacon, through all the hardships of our early settlement, afforded a constant example of cheerfulness, courage and energy. She lived to see the prosperity of the place which she had no small share in founding, and went to her rest full of years and honor.

Time fails me to speak as they deserve of Jonas W. Watson, of William Ferguson, of Robert J. Graveraet, of the genial and brilliant doctor, James J. St. Clair, and of Stephen R. Gay, a man full of energy and enthusiasm, who was the first manufacturer of charcoal iron in Mar­quette County.

Among the men of mark who have ceased from among us, the late Bishop Baraga deserves especial remembrance. This venerable prelate was a truly apostolic man, who counted neither honor, ease, nor life itself dear so that he might faithfully follow his Divine Master in the care of souls. He first reduced the Chippewa language to writing and gave it a grammar and dictionary. Born of a noble family and inheriting wealth, he devoted himself and all that he had to the work of teaching the Gospel to the Indians of this peninsula, while it was still an unbroken wilderness. His long journeys up and down the lake were often performed on foot and in great peril, and to the last hour of his life he lived in the greatest simplicity. Well I remember upon one of the occasions when I went to see him during his last illness, urging him to allow himself more of the comforts which it seemed to me his age and in­firmities required. "What matters it," said he," that I should have a more comfortable bed; I am better lodged than my Master; I have a roof, but He had no place where He might lay His head!"

If, in speaking of the late Heman B. Ely, as it is proper that I should do on this occasion, the partiality of kindred should be evidenced rather than the judgment of the historian, I pray you to pardon me! The twenty years that have passed since his departure furnish the proper standard for the measurement of what he was, what he projected and what he did. He was a man of prophetic insight, who saw the end from the beginning, and counted for nothing all the intervening obstacles and postponements. If he seemed silent and reserved, it was not because he was taciturn or morose, but because his mind was pre-occupied with the work before him. He knew no respect of persons; the humblest man was sure of justice and courtesy from him. His courage and determination never failed him; he did his work to the day of his death, making no voluntary concessions to his last enemy. He died in his prime, but his work and his memory remain.

The proper limit of time in which I ought to detain you is already reached. Our history is brief; the men who had wrought it out are most of them here present today, and they are not yet old. We have established an outpost on the northern boundary of the Republic, one of the many settlements which have carried her progress onward through the continent. The seed of freedom is fruitful, and its growth, because it springs from truth and from justice, in the order of man's nature and God's providence, knows no limit but those of time and space. Therefore, from our country's small beginning 100 years ago 40,000,000 people have spread over the continental area of the Republic, and hailing this Centennial day, join the glad hearts and voices of a great Nation, upon the Atlantic coast, by the Connecticut, the Hudson, the Susquehanna, the Savannah and St. John: along the Blue Ridge and the Alleghanies; along the Ohio, the Tennessee and the Mississippi; by the northern lakes and the Gulf of Mexico; along the Missouri, the Arkansas and the Rio Grande; by the Rocky Mountain ranges, lilting up their hoary summits to the sky; at the Golden Gate, and along the far Pacific.

Before us all lies the great, the illimitable future! Who can cast the horoscope of the second hundred years of the Republic, and of the centuries which are to follow it!

The heritage of freedom is perpetual to all men who deserve to be free; but there is no charm in institutions, there is no magic in forms of government to perpetuate freedom, when justice and truth have ceased out of the Commonwealth.

Justice and truth! These let us cherish, these let us transmit to our children and they to theirs! Thus till the appointed period of this earth be finished, throughout this broad continent, under the government established by our fathers, shall generation after generation be enfolded beneath the blessed wings of freedom and peace.

May God evermore defend and preserve the Republic!"


The first land located within the boundaries of the city was that by G. E. Freeman and Charles Johnson, the latter of whom built the first house there.

The first plat of Marquette Village was made for the Cleveland Iron Mining Company, in August, 1854, and recorded before Peter White, Register of the county. The land then platted extended back from the bay to Fifth street, and north from a line south of Fisher street to a line half a block north of Spring street. The thirty-six-acre plat, extending from the north side of the original plat north of Ridge street, was laid off in Aug 1st, 1854, for M. L. Hewitt, Ed Cook, John Burt, Charles Johnson and Eliza T. Duncan, of the Cleveland Iron Company.

Harlow's Addition No. 1, was platted for Martha W. Bacon, in July, 1855. The plat extended from Iron Bay to the section line beyond Seventh Street.

Hewitt's Addition to the city was made in 1855, for Isaac L. Hewitt. It embraced the lands east from Front Street to the Light-House Reservation, and north from Water or Lake Street to Mt. Vernon street, extending south­east to Main street.

Burt & Ely's plat was made in 1856. It included all the lots fronting on Carp River Street and on High street, and beyond Carp River fronting on Chocolate Street.

Harlow's Addition No. 2 was made in 1859, extending from the center of Section 23, Town 48 north, of Range 25 west, running west 646 feet, thence north twelve degrees, east 666 foot, and north seventy-eight degrees, west 518 feet; also Lots 1 and 2 of Block 14 of Section 23.

Penny & Vaughn's Addition was made by John T. Durand, in August, 1859. It extends from the bay, or Bay de Noquet Street, to Adams street, and from Mesnard to Jack­son.

Burt's Addition. made in 1860 for John Burt, extends from Ridge to Mt. Vernon, and from High street to Fourth street.

Blaker & Bacon's Subdivision of the village was made in 1861, extending from the meridian line to Front Street, and from Bluff to Ridge street.

Harlow's Third, Fourth and Fifth Additions, Earl's replat of Block 6, Jahn and William Burt's, Craig's, Baldwin's and Hiram A. Burt's, together with the following de­scribed additions, were made since 1860.

Edwards' Addition to the city, extending from Penny & Vaughn's Addition to John and William Burt's, and from the State road, or Third street, to Marquette Bay, was platted by L. C. Palmer for J. W. Edwards, in May, 1874.

Blocks 8, 9, 11, 12 and 13, of the Cleveland Iron Mining Company's division of Marquette, were platted by George P. Cummings, Civil Engineer, in April, 1876.

Harlow's Addition No. 6, to Marquette City, was platted by E. M. Spaulding in March, 1877, for Mrs. Olive L. Harlow.

The first brick business block was that known as the Burt Block, on the corner of Front and Main streets, built about 1866.

The first variegated brown stone block was the National Bank Building, in 1872–73.

The Opera House Block was built in 1875. The next brown stone building was the dwelling built by Richard Traverse in 1875.

A village government was organized in 1859. The records of the board are said to have been destroyed in the fire of 1868. Since that period to the organization of the city government, the records are complete, and from them the following record of members of the Village Board is compiled.

1868—M. H. Maynard, President; T. T. Hurley, J. W. Edwards, H. A. Burt and F. P. Wetmore, Trustees; S. P. Murch, Recorder.

1869—M. H. Maynard, President; T. T. Hurley, M. L. Hewitt, B. P. Robins, Samuel Peck, Terence Moore, Trustees; S. P. Murch, Recorder.

1870—M. H. Maynard, President; F. P. Wetmore, J. H. Grinnell, A. R. Harlow, M. L. Hewitt and B. P. Robins, Trustees; S. P. March, Recorder.

1871—H. D. Smith, President; A. R. Harlow, Terence Moore, John Thony, Daniel Brittell, P. C. Parkinson and J. H. Grinnell, Trustees; S. P. Murch, Recorder.

The Village Council held its last meeting April 6, 1871, when the officers of the newly established city were declared elected. Until the organization of the Council, H. D. Smith acted as Mayor, under the charter, succeeding to that position as President of the village.

The Five of 1868.—The destructive fire of 1868 was the agent by which many monuments of the first progressive period of the village were swept away. Among those monuments were the Burt Block, valued at $30,000, which stood on the east side of Front street; H. R. Mather's frame block, valued at from $10,000 to $12,000; Adams, Frazer & Co.'s Block, corner of Spring and Front streets, valued at $15,000; the M., H. & O. R. R. shops; the dock warehouses; the M., H. & O. R. R. trestle dock, and other buildings and structures in the heart of the village. The fire originated within the M., H. & O. R. R. shops. That it was probably of incendiary origin is evident from the fact of the water supply (said to be fully equal to meet the necessity of the time) being shut off.

The United States Register's records of public lands, the village records, and a few valuable law libraries, were all destroyed, or so injured as to be useless for reference.


The city of Marquette was incorporated under authority of a legislative act, approved February 27, 1871. The territory was then set off from Marquette Township, divided into three wards, and provision made for the election of a Mayor, Recorder, Treas­urer, three Justices of the Peace, two Constables, six Aldermen and three Supervisors; the latter office was provided for by making the short-term Alderman of each ward the Supervisor of the Ward. The territory set off embraced Fractional Sections 13 and 14, Sections 15 and 22, Fractional Sections 23, 24 and 26, Sections 27, 34 and 35, arid Fractional Section 36, in Town 48 north, of Range 25 west.

The first election under the Marquette City charter was held April 3, 1871. The following record will point out the electoral strength of the city, and also deal with the men who sought the honors of official life as pioneer offi­cers of the city:

Mayor—H. H. Safford, 352 votes; Peter White, 271. Recorder—Arch Benedict, 197; A. N. Barney, 185; S. E. Chink, 32; Thomas Elmore, 96.

Treasurer—Balthazer Neidhart, 258; F. M. Moore, 368.

School Inspector—John George O'Keefe, 615; J. H. Grinnell, 576.

Constable—Jacob Dolf, 622; Patrick Donavan, 618.

Aldermen, First Ward—Terence Moore, 90; Con Clime, 89; Thomas Hefferman, 59; T. T. Hurley, 124.

Aldermen, Second Ward—Alex C. Theill, 147; Jahn Thony, 113; P. C. Parkinson, 197; A. R. Harlow, 68.

Aldermen, Third Ward—James M. Wilkinson, 155; Daniel H. Ball, 88; Daniel Brittell, 75.

Justice of the Peace—John George O'Keefe.


Mayors—Henry H. Stafford, 1871; Samuel P. Ely, 1872-73; Samuel P. Ely, 1873; Alfred P. Swineford, 1874-75; James Pickands, 1876; Francis M. Moore, 1877; James P. Pendill, 1878-81; H. D. Lyons (pro tem.), 1881; Jeffry Coles, 1882-83.

Recorders—Archibald G. Benedict, 1871; Sydney E. Church, 1872-73; Joseph H. Primeau, 1873; Joseph H. Primeau, 1874-75; Joseph H. Primeau, 1876; Joseph H. Primeau, 1877; John George O'Keefe, 1878-81; John George O'Keefe. 1881; John George O'Keefe, 1882-83.


1871, Terence Moore, First Ward; 1871, Alex C. Theil, Second Ward; 1871, James M. Wilkinson, Third Ward; 1872, B. Neidhart, Second Ward; 1872, Peter C. Parkman, Second Ward; 1872, Daniel H. Ball, Third Ward; 1872, T. T. Hurley, First Ward; 1873, James Atfield, First Ward; 1873, Balthazer Neidhart, Second Ward; 1873, Edward Fraser, Third Ward; 1875, Thomas Jewell, First Ward; 1875, Thomas A. Cook, Second Ward; 1875, Frank B. Spear, Third Ward; 1875, Sam D. Humphreys, Fourth Ward; 1876, A. P. Swineford, First Ward; 1876, Thomas E. Cook, Second Ward; 1876, M. H. Maynard, Third Ward; 1876, D. H. Merritt, Fourth Ward; 1877, A. P. Swineford, First Ward; 1877, Thomas E. Cook, Second Ward: 1877, Ed B. Palmer, Third Ward; 1877, Sage A. Catlin, Fourth Ward; 1878, John Connor, First Ward; 1878, Timothy T. Hurley, Second Ward; 1878, Peter White, Third Ward; 1878, W. A. Mahan, Fourth Ward; 1879, John McCarthy; 1879, David Sang; 1879, Peter White; 1879, W. A. Ma­han; 1880, John Connor; 1880, James Dwyer; 1880, James Pickands; 1880, William A. Mahan; 1881, John Connor; 1881, James Dwyer; 1881, James Pickands; 1881, G. P. Cummings 1882, John Connor; 1882, Martin Ford; 1882, James Pickands; 1882, George P. Cummings.


So recently as November, 1869, when a fire occurred in the village, the citizens were accustomed to turn out unor­ganized and extinguish it. On the 13th of that month, the Board of Fire and Water Commissioners was directed by the Council to reorganize a fire department and appoint a Chief Engineer. Today, the city boasts of one of the best equipped and disciplined fire companies in the State.

The disastrous conflagration of 1868, which may be said to have reduced the village to ashes, taught that ex­pensive lesson which continues to prove the value of a well-organized fire department.


The request of the Marquette Gas Light Company for permission to erect buildings for the manufacture of gas was brought before the Village Council July 17, 1869, and an ordinance passed granting the rights asked for. Work was begun shortly after, and, before the close of the year, the village was lighted by gas.


School District No. 1 was established April 21, 1852, by P. M. Everett and R. J. Graveraet, Board of School Inspectors, and the first meeting of the board ordered to be held April 28, 1852. At present, the city is liberally sup­plied with school buildings, among which is one, a varie­gated stone building on Ridge street, which is in itself a lasting monument to the well-directed zeal of the people in this connection. On the south side is another important schoolhouse, constructed of brick and stone. Statistics are given in the general history of the county.


April 5, 1869, the question of a $100,000 loan for the purpose of constructing a system of water works was submitted to the people of the village, when 143 voted assent, and 125 dissent. The Commissioners at the time were Jo­seph W. Edwards, Peter White, H. A. Burt, Sam P. Ely and W. L. Wetmore. On account of some technicality, this vote was considered informal, as was also the vote of July 10. The question was again submitted July 31, 1869, asking the people to vote $50,000 for the same purpose. The result was 304 for and 27 against the loan. The urgency in the case was shown by the burning of the propel­ler Queen of the Lakes in the harbor. August 6, 1869, a contract was made with the Holly Manufacturing Company to supply pumps of 2,000,000 gallons daily capacity for $22,0J0. A contract was made with Smith, of Pittsburgh, to supply and lay five miles of iron pipe through the village. On September 2, the Commissioners contracted with Timothy T. Hurley to build a stone engine house on a portion of the Light-House Reservation, adjacent to the breakwater, then about completed. This ground was given by the Secretary of the Treasury for the purpose. The contractors lost no time in carrying out the work, so that toward the close of December the board declared its satis­faction with the progress made.

The bonds were issued January 1, 1869, by the Board of Water and Fire Commissioners, in accord with the legislative act of 1869, and with the majority vote of the vil­lage electors. There were fifty bonds of $1,000 each, ten of which were made payable January 1, 1879; fifteen, Jan­uary 1, 1884; and twenty-five payable January 1, 1889.

The pumps manufactured at Marquette by Merritt & Co. have taken the place of the old Holly works. They are marvels of mechanical economy, and reflect credit not only on the makers, but also on the city which fosters such an industry.


At a meeting of the City Council held April 8, 1872, the following letter from Peter White was read:


My Dear Sir-I hereby donate the sum of $10,000, to be expended for the following purposes, for the city of Marquette, to wit:

The sum of $5,000, or such portion thereof as may be necessary for the purchase and erection of a fountain for the Washington Street Park or the City Cemetery. If the fountain shall not cost the entire sum of $5,000, the amount remaining shall be expended on drives, walks and sittings in the vicinity.

2d. The suns of $4,000, to found a public library in the city, to he under the government of five trustees-S. P. Ely, Daniel H. Ball, H. A. Burt, M. H. Maynard and T. T. Hurley, who shall appoint their own successors.

$1,000 to be expended in the purchase of cases, and in completing room in the new city hall.

Resolved, On motion of Alderman Ball, seconded by Alderman Hurley, it was unanimously resolved, "That the Council accept the munificent donation of $10,000, made by our esteemed fellow-citizen, Peter White, Esq., for the purposes designated by him, and pledge our best efforts to secure to the people of the city the greatest possible benefit there from. That we recognize in this donation a manifestation of that public spirit and disinterested liberality characteristic of the donor, and to which the city owes so much of its past prosperity and present position, and that we tender him the hearty thanks of ourselves and the people of this city therefor."

Here the subject appears to have been allowed to rest. The money so magnanimously donated was invested in the interest of the city, and thus matters stood until 1879, when Mr. White presented to the city the present City Hall, to­gether with the lot on which it stands. In addition to these presents, he subscribed $5,000 toward the founding of the library, and subsequently increased this amount, until his total donation amounted to $10,000. The institution is capable of doing vast good. Its benefits are evident. The central location of the library, and the manner in which it is conducted, afford every opportunity to the people to read useful books.

If information be the object of the traveler, the wor­shiper of his own Penates may remark that a rolling stone gathers no intellectual moss; that a day's travel through a city of books will teach more than a week's travel through a city of people; that the cream's cream of all man may wish to know, already skimmed for us, lies already by our side, provided without unnecessary agitation or expense, and that ears abroad are not more faithful witnesses than eyes at home. And so, in the dreary months of winter, he may, fortified with a good memory, outtalk at dinner those who have roamed the farthest, and achieve for himself that social distinction which is one of the great ends of travel for all.

Such advantages this library offers. The whole neigh­borhood is a museum, in which natural history may be studied from the most extensive object lessons.

The proposed United States Custom House for Mar­quette is to be one of thy leading public buildings of the State. The plans, location and liberal appropriation all point it out as a true recognition of what is due to the peo­ple and enterprise of the city.


The Marquette Mining Journal was established at Cop­per Harbor in the summer of 1846, nine years before the publication of the Ontonagon Miner, by John N. Ingersoll. The office was removed to Sault de Ste. Marie in 1848, and there published under the same title, without break in the volume or number. A copy of the Journal, dated July 21, 1849, Vol. 4, No. 7, by John N. Ingersoll, is preserved in the office of the paper at Marquette. Some time before Mr. Ingersoll's visit to the St. Clair counties, he sold his inter­est to a Mr. Brown, who in turn disposed of his interest, and so on until the office was transferred to Marquette, in the fall of 1855, at the instance of John Burt. In a con­troversy on journalistic seniority carried on between the Miner and Mining Journal, during December, 1879, and January, 1880, the following historical parallels are drawn. The Journal states: "We have in our possession a copy of a Lake Superior Mining Journal, extra, dated Marquette, November 22, 1856, giving particulars of the loss of the steamer Superior off the Pictured Rocks, and of the burn­ing of the propeller Webb in Waiskai Bay. Again, the Mining Journal was published at Marquette the same year in which the Miner made its first appearance at Ontonagon. It is true we have no files of the paper to prove the asser­tion other than a bound volume, for which we are indebted to friend Meads, of the Miner, himself running from Sep­tember 8, 1858, to May 9, 1800-Vol. IX, No. 17, to Vol. X, No. 52, inclusive. In the first of these numbers we find advertisements, etc. (Vol. VI, No. 1), showing insertion therein in the summer of 1855—three years and seventeen weeks prior to September 8, 1858. Again, the first editor of the Journal at Marquette was George M. Watson, who died in February, 1856. John Burt was then proprietor of the pa­per, and had been for some time previous to its removal from the Sault de Ste. Marie. Mrs. P. M. Everett, one of the lady pioneers of Marquette, had the records of the Mar­quette Literary Society, which, under date of February 26, 1856, bears resolutions referring to the death of this pio­neer journalist at Marquette. Of this society the deceased was a member for some time, having previously delivered an address on the Origin and Progress of Printing. The material of the office must have been transferred from the Sault before the winter of 1856, as Mrs. Everett states pos­itively that the first publication was made at Marquette in the summer or fall of 1855, which statement is borne out by M. H. Maynard and other old residents.

After the death of G. M. Watson, a Mr. Judd was ap­pointed editor. Judd was succeeded by Warren Isham, who died in editorial harness. Among the succeeding editors previous to 1865 were Daniel H. Ball—Banfield and Alex Campbell. About 1865, a publishers' association was formed, the officers of which conducted the paper until the destruction of the building and material by fire in June, 1868.

The Journal Company made overtures to the present publisher, then editor, of the Negaunee newspaper, which overtures were accepted, so that, on July 25, 1868, the Lake Superior Mining Journal reappeared, under its old name. In the winter of 1868, however, the title was subjected to a change by omitting the words "Lake Superior," retaining the name Mining Journal. The change was purely sug­gested by the necessities of our day, which call for brevity in almost everything. The paper, under whatever name it may be published, so long as it deals with the mining in­terests of the peninsula as it has been dealing, must be con­sidered the great industrial newspaper of the Lake Supe­rior region. It had its birth at Copper Harbor in 1846, while yet a few bark wigwams occupied the site of Mar­quette City, at a time when Jim Paul's log shanty formed the village of Ontonagon. It passed its childhood at the village of the Sault, and came to Marquette to reach its manhood, to grow in importance even as the city has grown.

The Lake Superior News was published in 1860, with Charles M. W. Earle proprietor. Issue No. 7 of Vol. II appeared August 24, 1861, which contained the valedictory of Mr. Earle. This paper was republished shortly after, or perhaps continued, with Dr. St. Clair as editor and pro­prietor. May 29, 1862, the forty-sixth number of Vol. II appeared, which shows that no break in the publication took place. The office was purchased by Daniel H. Ball and Alex Campbell, who published the News until their purchase of the Lake Superior Journal office. The paper was then issued as the Lake Superior News and Journal until 1864, when they sold the office to John A. Banfield. Under Mr. Banfield, the name of the paper was changed, and published until the fire of 1868. A publishing com­pany, with Stephen. Rice as editor, had control of the pa­per for some time previous to the fire.


The Massachusetts Forge was built at Marquette, south of the Cleveland Dock, in 1849, under the direction of A. N. Harlow. This was burned in 1853. The Collins Fur­nace was constructed in 1858, by S. R. Gay. This indus­try was blown out in 1873. The Bancroft was built in 1860, by S. R. Gay. The Marquette & Pacific was built in 1868, and inaugurated September 1, that year. The operating company was incorporated in October, 1866. The Carp River Furnace was built in 1873, by the Penin­sular Iron Company. The Grace was opened in December, 1872.

The M., H. & O. R. R. Co.'s dock at Marquette has a total length of 1,2221 feet, is thirty-eight feet high above the water, and fifty-three feet wide. It is supplied with four railway tracks, upon which the ore cars are run over the pockets. There are 136 pockets, situated on both sides, of which 120 have a capacity of fifty-five tons each, and six­teen (steamboat pockets) of 100 tons each. Eight vessels can receive cargoes at the same time, and a vessel of aver­age tonnage can be loaded in one hour and thirty minutes. It is estimated that the dock has a capacity for handling, with ease, 500,000 tons during a single season of naviga­tion.

The Cleveland Iron Mining Company's Ore Dock at Marquette is so exactly similar to the one last referred to that it is not necessary to enter into a detailed statement of its size and capacity. Both are elaborate and costly struct­ures, and, together, have a sufficient capacity to meet all the requirements of the ore trade for years to come.

It is very probable that, within a short time, another dock will be constructed, by the D., M. & M. Ry. Co., in connection with the proposed roads throughout the mining country.

The Lake Superior Powder Company was organized Au­gust 13, 1869. The signers of the articles of association were Peter White, A. G. Clark, Sam P. Ely, W. L. Wet­more, F. P. Thayer, G. D. Johnson, Ed Breitung, Henry Merry, S. L. Mather, John Outhwaite, Jay C. Morse, George Worthington and C. H. Call.

The Merrit Iron Foundry, the carriage shops and other industrial concerns of the city are referred to in other pages; so also are the railroads, ore docks and commerce of the port.

With the increase in number of developed and paying mines, and the construction of more mills, the town will of course grow, and the demand for food and supplies will enhance the value and importance of farms. The city is exceedingly favored in the proximity of such rich farming lands, and these are an important element in estimating the resources and forecasting the future of the county. Ten hundred thousand dollars for the value of grains and vegetables would form a fair figure at which to place the val­ues of what the farms and gardens should even now be pro­ducing. Add to this the hay crop and the increase of stock, and the figures may be swelled to over $1,500,000. The magnificent yield of wheat, exceeding in average to the acre the famous farms of Kansas, will soon attract capital hither to invest in this industry, and thousands of acres be found capable of producing this cereal that are now not sown at all.

Following this will come the much required flour mill­ing industries.

In closing this historical sketch of the city, we still must revert to the introductory paragraphs for the moral of her story. While granting that a very remarkable, even conciliating, progress has been made, there is something which tells the tale of chances allowed to pass—not by any means of chances lost—which, if grasped firmly, would give a city of 20,000 inhabitants to Marquette County, rather than one of 6,323, which the city of today claims. A little enterprise grouped round the men who have done and still continue to do so much for the municipality will go far to raise the city to its proper industrial level, and give to the Upper Peninsula an American center of popula­tion, American-like in every characteristic.

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