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Source: History of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan: containing a full account of its early settlement, its growth, development, and resources, an extended description of its iron and copper mines: also, accurate sketches of its counties, cities, towns, and villages ... biographical sketches, portraits of prominent men and early settlers. Publication Info: Chicago : Western Historical Co., 1883. Pages 379-391.

The history of this county is peculiarly that of the American pioneer era of the Upper Peninsula. Prior to the coming of American enterprise, the wilderness alone was here; the location did not claim even a regular Indian habitant; it was unvisited by the French explorers of the Northwest, and even avoided by the trappers and hunters of later days. Archaeologists cannot identify it with the homes of the ancient miners, nor can the ethnologist establish it as the permanent home of the Indian band. It is true that the Indians of Keweenaw had a full acquaintance with the beaver homes along the Carp, together with a vague idea of what the iron rock, the Biwabiko-wadjiw, was; yet the barbarians looked upon the beaver as something which would not continue much longer to lure them hither, and upon the iron mountain as the home of lightning and thunder, always inhospitable, generally angry, repulsive, and often times appalling. When the character of the Indian and the advantages which the Western bays and the banks of the St. Mary's River offered him, are considered, it is not a matter for surprise to learn that he was willing to ignore the idea of settlement on a spot so far west of the trader's lake route and so utterly wanting in those resources which the lazy red man loved to draw forth. For these reasons, Marquette County has not an Indian history, nor is there anything to point out even a temporary settlement by the French traders, or a visit from the first French missionaries and explorers. The city has no ancient history. The county claims an ancient geological history, extending over ages co-existent with the first solidifying and peopling of this world, a reference to which should necessarily be speculative, and, consequently, beyond the plan of this work.

Marquette County, her cities, villages and townships, are all the result of modern enterprise and knowledge. It may be said that an Indian encampment was located where the Mackinac Railroad depot now is, in 1845, when Mr. Everett arrived. The chief of this band was Manjigeezek, or "Moving Day." He was an Otchipwe, and under him were about thirty warriors. Another band visited Lake Michigamme at intervals; but the stay made by the nomads should not gain for them the name of settlers.

Chusco was the prophet of L'Arbre Croche and also of Mackinac, where he died at an advanced age in 1838. On that island came to reside the prophetess, Ogeewyahnoqutokwa, of Chegoimegon, who was converted by John Sunday, and married the Indian Waboose. She was a lineal descendant of Wabogug, who went from Sault de Ste. Marie to assist Montcalm against the British at Quebec. Both of those characters made their homes near the mouth of Carp River for a short time, before their final move to Mackinac Island; yet they cannot be called resident Indians.

There is no intention whatever to decry the Indian his.. tory of the district. While it must be conceded that the county is full of evidences of ancient visitors, there is nothing in French or American records to show a permanent settlement. The following archaeological discoveries remain to point out that long years ago the country was known to the Jesuits, as well as to the aboriginal inhabitants of this peninsula.

In excavating at the Carp, in 1851, it is stated by Sidney Adams that the workmen found the bed of an old river and in it many copper instruments, which are said to be in possession of John Burt, of Detroit. Mr. Adams remembers the discovery in 1851. In Chocolay Township, a Bishop's silver cross and a short gun barrel were found while raking out a charcoal pit.

An old Indian, Marjizeekiks, told Mr. Adams, in 1852, that he remembered when the Indians cultivated gardens on Presque Isle, and then trees of large growth were found there.

On Ripley's Rock, Indian hieroglyphics were found by Mr. Adams, in June, 1851. The hieroglyphics were contained, or rather, written on a large double sheet of birch bark sewn along the edges by thread made from tissue, showing the characters on the bulge.

There are old Indian graves south of the Carp, and again, where the road passes in front of the Northwestern Hotel, were other graves. On Light-House Point are found a number, and again on the Picnic rocks are found the rude tombs of a people unremembered by the savages of 1845.

There was an old stone-worker's shop where Dr. Hewitt's residence now is, in Marquette City. Arrow-heads, chips from stones and other evidences of Indian workers in stone, were found by Walter Stafford. Mr. Adams has a copper spearhead found by him four miles below Marquette in 1856.

During the excavation work, close by the Northwestern Hotel, in 1861 or 1862, a vessel containing about a half bushel of large leaden bullets, was found by Joshua Hodgkins.

In the Otchipwe Nagamon, or national hymn of the Lake Superior Indians, the social condition of Marquette County, during the early years of the modern mining era, is portrayed with that natural distinctness characteristic of the Indian. Rev. Mr. Jacker's translation, while perfect in itself, gives that very poor idea of the Indian original which our present language is only capable of giving:

Anamakamig dash
Maiagwed jaganash,    
But under the ground
The German, the Irishmen
Are working.
They are gathering metal,
They are hired laborers;
The big knives (Americans)
Are carrying off the spoils.



All may wonder at the mystery which enshrouds the story of those quaint old visitors and the souvenirs of their coming and their stay, and while wondering must offer a tribute to the past—to the old race of miners who first discovered the presence of mineral, and, in their rude ways, essayed to develop the rich ores or native metals. To the men and women who came to take possession of the country, to renew, as it were, the industries which the unknown race ceased to carry on. and to stay in their chosen land, we can say: You found a wilderness and cleared a place for habitation; you took from the mountains wealth to pay for the labor; you found at hand the solid rock and clay for brick, the pine trees for lumber, the very sand, and out of these materials built your cities.

No better illustration is afforded anywhere of the skill and ingenuity of man; he found materials in nature's great storehouse, of which he was the master—they the slaves; he found the land a wilderness, peopled by savages—see the change! The stores, the banks, the railroads, the docks, the hotels, all stand where, only a few years ago, the tangled underbrush sheltered uncultivated nature. The morning whistles, the school and church bells ringing from the hillsides, have drowned, as it were, the wild whoop of the Indian. The newspaper, the great missionary of modern times, is abroad, and proves to the outside world that you are earnest. The telegraph and telephone, a complete railroad system, a well organized society—all are yours. Withal, your neighbors in older settlements may claim some advantages, such as great centers of culture and wealth, yet would you change places with them? Would you go back to the quiet life so poor in experiences as the old past you left in your old home? Nay, tarry here amid these hills, full of the romance of promise, where opportunity—a goddess so shy in older communities, and coy, and hard to win—extends a friendly hand on hilltop and in vale, and fairly leads you to the summit of success.


In the general history, as well as in the historic papers, by S. P. Ely and Peter White, references are made to the discovery and development of the iron industries of this county. For this reason, a special paper on the subject, prepared by Mr. Whitman, has been laid aside as, redundant and the letter of William Burt substituted. This letter deals with some facts which pertain properly to the history of this county, and which form valuable additions to the historical reminiscences of Messrs. White and Ely.

To render the history of the era of iron discovery more complete, as well as to show what part was taken in bringing the mineral resources of the Upper Peninsula under notice, by the line and geological survey parties of 1844, the following statements are given. The paper was written by William Burt January 10, 1870:

By reference to Part 3, of the annual messages and documents—Prof. C. T. Jackson's geological report, 1849 and 1850, pages 933, 934 and 935will be found a catalogue of mineral specimens collected by William A. Burt during his surveys of township lines in the fall of 1844. Near the bottom of page 934, is a list of sixteen specimens of iron ore, from Sections 1, 12, 13, 24 and 25, of Township 47 north, Range 27 west. These specimens and the catalogue were handed over to the United States Government in the fall of 1814, and the fact of the discovery of iron ore was well known in Detroit and in the counties of Macomb and Oakland. I have been told a man named Vanalstine, living in Oakland County, claims to have procured a piece of this ore from one of W. A. Burt's men, and to have tested the ore in a blacksmith's forge, in the year 1844. William A. Burt, at the end of the field notes of the survey of east boundary of Township 47 north, Range 27 west, wrote an N. B., as follows, viz.: "Two good solar compasses were used on the township line, and the variations of the needle determined by both. When the variations were about 45 degrees or 50 degrees, the needle appeared to be weak, linked and nearly destitute of magnetism. Spathic and hematite iron ore abound on this line." These field notes are in the State Land Office at Lansing, and copies of them in the General Land Office, Washington. Dr. D. Houghton was expected to write the geology of the district surveyed in 1844. I have never seen any geological report of that date, and suppose the material to have been lost when he lost his life, in 1845.

Jacob Houghton, Harvey Mellen and William Ives have written interesting letters regarding this first discovery of iron ore. Mr. Ives sent me a map which he says was made at the time of the survey, in the fall of 1844, and is just as he then made it, and in Township 47 north, Range 27 west, is written these words, "Iron Hills." I have an old map, recently found amongst some old maps of surveys, which shows the same iron ore deposits. On the face of this map, Samuel W. Hill has certified to its being a correct copy of the survey of William A. Burt.

In his diary of the year 1844, William A. Burt says: East boundary of Township 47 north, Range 27 west. This line is very extraordinary on account of the great variations of the needle and the circumstances attending the survey of it. Commenced in the morning, the 19th of September, weather clear. The variation high and fluctuating on the first mile, Section 1. On Sections 12 and 13, variations of all kinds from south 87° east, to north 87° west. In some places the north end of the needle would dip to the bottom of the box, and would not settle anywhere. In other places it would have variations 40, 50 and 60° east, then west variation alternating in the distance of a few chains. Camped on a small stream on Section 13. September 20, raining; staked the line on south half of Section 13, the needle being useless. September 21, snow fell in the fore part of the day from three to six inches deep. Mr. Ives came to us—had been left lame near the corner of Townships 47 and 48, Ranges 26 and 27. September 22, snow gone; all hands staked line one and one-half miles, underbrushing the line, cutting down some trees and notching into others to keep the range. During the day had the ague and fever.

Although on an allowance of one-third or one-fourth enough (provisions) and cloudy weather, we did not dare risk the compass, on account of the great fluctuations of the needle, to direct our course, or venture ourselves to go after provisions, when I had some deposited seven or eight miles east-southeast of us. September 23, in the morning, ate our last allowance of provisions." The diary then goes on to state that the party captured three porcupines, or hedge hogs, which they ate, and finally the weather became clear and the party went east to their provisions.

Early in the summer of 1845, Dr. D. Houghton's party of surveyors discovered iron ore while subdividing Township 47 north, Range 26 west. This discovery was reported by Bela Hubbard, deputy surveyor, and is incorporated in Prof. Jackson's report, page 835.

C. T. Carr informs me that in the latter part of the season of 1845, in company with Edward Rockwell, and guided by the Indian brave and medicine man, Man-ji-ki-jik, they went and saw or discovered the Jackson Mine. I am told that Mr. Carr discovered considerable signs of some persons having been there before him. Prof. Jackson, in his report, page 477, says, Mr. Lyman Pray, in 1845, taking his advice, visited a large mountain of iron ore some where between the head of Keweenaw Bay and the Menominee River. Joseph Stacey, in 1845, reported the discovery of a large amount of iron ore between the mouth of Dead River and Lake Michigan. In May, 1846, William A. Burt discovered good iron ore in place, a few miles easterly of the junction of Michigammi and Brule Rivers, and during the same season our surveying parties, headed by William A., John and Austin Burt, discovered a large amount of iron ore deposits. For a full report of the geology and opinion of the value of the iron ore deposits, see W. A. Burt's report, Part 3, Annual Message and Documents, 1849-50, pages 842 to 876 inclusive. Page 852 has "General Remarks " on the iron ore and necessity of providing some good road to get it to market.

These remarks were written before any of our iron ore mines were opened. The first of our iron mines was opened in the fall of 1846, and the first forge for working the ore commenced operations in February, 1848. Foster and Whitney say in their report on the Geology of the Lake Superior Land District, part 2, pages 21 and 22: "To William A. Burt, Esq., is due the credit of having first determined the existence of these beds and proclaimed their value." These remarks evidently refer to his discovery of iron ore and report of it in 1846.

In 1853 or 1854, Mr. Everett sent three blocks of ore to the New York Exposition. This ore was shipped to the Sault, then portaged and reshipped for New York.


A review of the case, Compo vs. the Jackson Iron Company, and the decision given by the Supreme Court, in 1882, contains much that is historical and instructive. The appeal to the Supreme Court was taken by F. O. Clark, attorney for Compo. The defense was represented by M. H. Maynard, C. I. Walker and C. T. Wing.

C. Compo, as assignee of Charlotte Kobogum, an Indian woman, daughter and heir of Marji Gezick, a deceased Indian, brought a bill to obtain relief under the following circumstances: Defendant is the corporate successor, and under the statute, subject to the liabilities of a former company originally incorporated in 1848 as the Jackson Mining Company, and afterward changed to the Jackson Iron Company. That corporation was organized chiefly by, and obtained the mining property of, a previous unincorporated joint-stock company, acting through several trustees, and known as the Jackson Mining Company. This suit is brought to secure the rights alleged to have been contracted by the original association to be given to Marji Gezick, but never formally conveyed or otherwise assured to him or to the daughter, who succeeds him. The association was made for the purpose of mining on Lake Superior. Marji Gezick discovered and made known to them the iron mine in Marquette County, which they have always worked as their mining property, and they had agreed to pay him for his services. The association having procured a War Department permit, and in pursuance thereof having taken out a lease of the mining location, which contained a section of land, thereupon gave to Marji Gezick a written agreement dated May 30, 1846, signed by the President and Secretary, which declared that, in consideration of his services in hunting ores of Location 593, he was entitled to twelve undivided thirty-one-hundredth parts of the interests of the Jackson Mining Company in said Location 593. This agreement was ratified and confirmed on the books of the company, which it is averred passed to defendant. It is also averred that a subsequent verbal agreement to perfect the title at their own expense as soon as possible, and give him that interest, was also ratified and confirmed and entered on the books.

An objection made to this alleged verbal agreement as void under the statute of frauds does not appear to us of much importance, because by the alleged ratification it ceased to rest merely in parol, and for the further reason that as the title was actually obtained, it left the original agreement, if valid, sufficient to assure the same interest.

Subsequently, the incorporated company, by virtue of the lease, was allowed to enter the land at $2.50 per acre, and a patent was issued December, 1851. Since that time, the land has been used for mining purposes, and the enterprise has been very successful.

Marji Gezick, who is alleged to have been an uneducated Indian, died in or before the year 1857. The bill alleges that his rights were recognized during his life. That after Charlotte Kobogum succeeded to his interest, Mr. Everett, a member of the original association, and one of its trustees, saw the President of the company in New York, where the office was located, on her behalf, and showed him the original agreement, and on search they found its ratification on the books, and he promised to look up the matter and settle with her if she had rights. Subsequently, offers deemed inadequate have been made for her interest, but recently the company refuses to acknowledge her rights. The defendant demurs, and relies on various grounds, including lapse of time, and various grounds of insufficiency of title shown.

The original contract was in writing, and contained a definite description of the land, and of Marji Gezick's interest in it, and the consideration on which it rested, which was a valuable one. There is no difficulty that we can discover in holding this a valid agreement and declaration of trust for the title, if there was any title to which it referred. It is claimed, however, that the right then existing was a mere license, and not the subject of contract or grant. It purported, however, to give permanent rights, including a right of pre-emption. It was not shown on the argument, and is not very important, in what way these lands came, as they did actually come, under the control of the War Department. By an act approved. March 1, 1847, Congress recognized this by providing for transfer of their management and control to the Treasury Department —9 Laws, U. S., 147. The same law provided for their survey and sale, and gave to occupants under War Department leases a pre-emption to be exercised during the existence of the lease, on condition that the entire tract should be purchased, and compliance made with the terms of the leases. There can be no doubt, we think, that the purchase of the land under this act depended on the leasehold rights, and was in pursuance of the pre-emption right thereby granted, and that the act of Congress ratified the lease, whether originally valid or not.

This being so, we think that whatever right Marji Gezick had in the lease followed it into the purchase and became attached to the title. There is nothing in the bill indicating that any demand was made on him to contribute his small share of the purchase money, which would be about $6 or $7, provided the land was not paid for out of the profits, which is quite possible. This gave him an equitable title to the undivided interest described, which the legal owners held in trust for him. This title passed to his daughter, and she could transfer or enforce it as an interest in fee, unless barred by lapse of time.

There is nothing in the bill which shows that this title has been disputed long enough to bar her rights. Lapse of time alone will not necessarily operate as a disseizin in law or equity, and the bill does not indicate any considerable delay since the company gave up negotiating and denied her rights. The defendant has not answered, and on the present hearing we must assume the bill to be true. There is enough in it to call upon defendant to put in a defense and leave the merits to be tried on the facts. It is possible that the accounting for past rents and profits may be limited by a far shorter period than the claim to the land itself. We cannot anticipate what questions may be raised when the facts all come out.

The demurrer was improperly sustained. It must be overruled, with costs of this court and the usual costs of hearing on demurrer in the court below.

Judge Campbell delivered the decision. Judges Graves and Marston concurred, while Judge Cooley agreed that the bill made such a case as entitled the complainant to an answer.

The appeal was from an order of the Circuit Court sustaining the defendant's demurrer, which was based on the assumption that the claim, if it ever had valid existence, had lapsed.

The period of development appears to have been prearranged; for, in the discovery of the rich iron ore and the early attempts at reduction, are evidences given of some strange power. This power, incomprehensible as it is, was used in driving men from their happy homes into the wilderness to prepare the way, as it were, for others destined to aid in drawing forth all the great mineral resources of a land hitherto unprized. Today, a new discovery is made; tomorrow, a new mechanical appliance introduced; the day succeeding, a village platted and partially settled; another day, a gold mine; next week, a city organized; then a new railroad built, and so to the end. As this old land is peopled by moderns, so also are their ways modern and their progress rapid. When this tide of enterprise, which began to flow in 1846, is going ebb, is a mystery. It gives promise of old age, and of rendering this rugged Upper Peninsula one of the most prosperous, one of the wealthiest, and, perhaps, one of the great States of the Union.


The county may be considered the center of the Middle Division of the Upper Peninsula, comprising what is known as the iron region. This is, along its water-shed, quite wild and mountainous in its character, and, in its more level regions, contains immense tracts of valuable pine lands. The water-shed extends from the head-waters of Chocolay River north of westward nearly to Keweenaw Bay, and thence runs in a southwesterly nearly to the boundary of the State. This mountainous range reaches an altitude of 1,250 feet above Lake Michigan, the hills commonly being 800 to 1,000 feet in height. Lake Michigamme lies at an altitude of 966 feet. To the southwestward the country slopes into a gently undulating plain toward the western boundary of the State. There is, however, near this western border, another range of hills, known as the Menominee Range, which forms a water-shed between the Brule and Menominee Rivers and their tributaries, and the streams which flow northward and eastward. This range does not reach the altitude of the northern watershed, or approach it in ruggedness of character. The Menominee Range and the range which constitutes the watershed extending from Marquette Bay to Keweenaw Bay, comprise the developed iron region, which is one of the richest in the world, the hills, in some instances, being almost solid Masses of iron ore. The intervening region between these ranges is an elevated and gently undulating plain, well watered and heavily timbered with pine, mingled in some instances with hardwood.

Beaver Formations.—The great beaver district is found on the summit level of the hills, immediately west of Marquette. It extends about eight miles east and west, and six miles north and south; is traversed by the Carp and the Ely Branch of the Ishkonauba Rivers. Lakes Angeline and Michigamme are found in this neighborhood. In the

vicinity of Lakes Diamond, Mary and Helen, south of Lake Flora, and above, in the neighborhood of Ishpeming and Negaunee, varied evidences of beaver industry manifest themselves. The works on the Grass Lake Dam are perhaps the most extensive of any beaver enterprise south of latitude 53º. The canals made by the little animals along the Carp River are interesting relics of pre-mining enterprise, even as the beaver meadows in the locality were useful to the first miners. In 1865, Capt. Johnson cut fifty tons of hay on a single beaver meadow near the Escanaba River In 1862, when the M. & O. R. R. was extended to the Escanaba, the beavers retired. In 1864, two beavers arrived to repair these dams, but, finding the task a difficult one, they retired.


The paper from which the following reminiscences of early settlement are taken was delivered by Peter White, at Marquette, in April, 1870. Introducing the subject with a description of Mackinac Island, he proceeds to deal with the voyage hither and its immediate results.

It was from this island (Mackinac), twenty-one years ago this month, that the little (and, I might say, almost worthless) steamer Tecumseh took her departure for Sault Ste. Marie. It was a tempestuous April morning; the seas rolled mountain high, and, before she had accomplished many miles, a huge wave took of the yawl boat, swept through the steamer's gangways, washed overboard much of the freight from the decks, alarmed the passengers, and brought Capt. Pratt to the conclusion that he had better turn his craft and run her for the haven of safety he had left only a few hours before. The steamer was not as fleet as the famous chief whose name she bore. He could probably have beaten her best speed, on foot and through a thicket. Still, she did reach her starting point, and, after a delay of twenty-four hours for repairs, she again started on her trip. There were many more passengers on board than the boat had either eating sleeping accommodations for; but it was not intended that she should be more than twelve hours in making the trip. * * *

On board was a party specially bound to settle and start the city of Marquette, and to claim and undertake to develop all the iron mountains that had been or should subsequently be discovered. The head and leader of this party was the lamented Robert J. Graveraet. At that time he was a fit leader for any great enterprise that required the exercise of pluck, energy and perseverance. He had an indomitable will, a commendable ambition and a splendid physical organization, capable of enduring an untold amount of fatigue; a disposition firm, yet gentle and generous to a fault, a figure that, for grace, beauty, noble bearing and symmetrical proportions, I have never seen equaled. He had many virtues, but his end was sad indeed. Many a man without a tithe of the noble qualities he possessed holds a place in history as a great hero.

There were ten in our party, all but three of whom are now dead. The survivors are Dr. E. C. Rogers, now a practicing physician of some note in Chicago (a brother of Randolph Rogers, the sculptor); James Chapman, for many years past a resident of Bayfield, Wis.; and myself. I have resided here continuously ever since.

But I have digressed and got ahead of my story. The lively little steamer (lively with bed-bugs), after thrashing around several hours, finally got inside of the Detour, and there met with solid ice, two to three feet thick, and there were no indications of a speedy thaw. The boat was run about half her length into the ice, when some of the passengers debarked and ran up it in all directions. Some essayed the cutting of a canal with saws and axes, but soon gave it up as a slow job. The next day we backed out and tried another passage, by way of the Bruce Mines, and thus succeeded in hammering our way through to the Sault in just ten days from the time we left Mackinac. In the meantime, we had a bread riot, an insurrection, and once the boat sank to her deck, full of water. She would have remained there, perhaps, forever, but for the aid of an old fellow we had named "Old Saleratus," and at whom we had poked all manner of fun. He proved to be a ship carpenter, and, after we had unloaded the boat and pumped her up, he found the leak, put in a new plank, and we proceeded on our way. * * *

We succeeded in crowding our large Mackinac barge up the rapids, or falls, at Sault Ste. Marie, and, embarking ourselves and provisions, set sail on Lake Superior for the Carp River Iron Region. After eight days of rowing, towing, poling and sailing, we landed on the spot immediately in front of where Mr. George Craig's dwelling now stands. That was then called Indian Town, and was the landing-place of the Jackson Company. We put up that night at the Cedar House of Charley Bawgam. It is true his rooms were not many, but he gave us plenty to eat, clean and well cooked. I remember that he had fresh venison, wild ducks and geese, fresh fish, good bread and butter, coffee and tea, and splendid potatoes.

The next morning, we started for the much-talked-of iron hills; each one had a packap and blanket, and was directed to exercise his own discretion in putting into a pack what he thought he could carry. I put up forty pounds and marched bravely up the hills with it for a distance of two miles, by which time I was about as good as used up. Graveraet came up, and, taking my pack on top of his, a much heavier one, marched on with both, as if mine was only the addition of a feather, while I trudged on behind, and had hard work to keep up. Graveraet, seeing how fatigued I was, invited me to get on top of his load, saying he would carry me, too, and he could have done it, I believe; but I had too much pride to accept his offer. When we arrived at the little brook which runs by George Rublein's old brewery, we made some tea and lunched, after which I felt so much refreshed that I took my pack and carried it without much difficulty to what is now known as the Cleveland Mine, then known as Moody's location. On our way, we had stopped a few minutes at the Jackson forge, where we met Mr. Everett, Charles Johnson, Alexander McKerchie, A. N. Barney, N. E. Eddy, Nahum Keyes, and some others. At the Cleveland, we found Capt. Sam Moody and John H. Mann, who had spent the previous summer and winter there. I well remember how astonished I was the next morning when Capt. Moody asked me to go with him to dig some potatoes for breakfast. He took a hoe and an old tin pail, and we ascended a high hill, now known as the Marquette Iron Company's Mountain, and on its pinnacle found half an acre partially cleared and planted to potatoes. He opened but one or two hills when his pail was filled with large and perfectly sound potatoes—and then said, "I may as well pull a few parsnips and carrots for dinner, to save coming up again "—and, sure enough, he had them there in abundance. This was in the month of May.

From this time till the 10th of July, we kept possession of all the iron mountains then known west of the Jackson, employing our time fighting mosquitoes at night, and the black flies through the day; perhaps a small portion of it was given to denuding the iron hills of extraneous matter, preparing the way for the immense products that have since followed. On the 10th of July, we came away from the mountains, bag and baggage, arriving at the lake shore, as we then termed it, before noon. Mr. Harlow had arrived with quite a number of mechanics, some goods, lots of money, and, what was better than all, we got a glimpse of some female faces. We were all much excited, and buoyant with the hope of a bright and dazzling future before us.

At 1 o'clock of that day, we commenced clearing the site of the present city of Marquette, though we called it Worcester in honor of Mr. Harlow's native city. We began by chopping off the trees and brush, at the point of rocks near the brick blacksmith shop, just south of the shore end of the Cleveland Ore Docks. We cut the trees close to the ground, and then threw them bodily over the bank onto the lake shore; then, under the direction of Capt. Moody, we began the construction of a dock, which was to stand like the ancient pyramids, for future ages to wonder at and admire! We did this by carrying these whole trees into the water and piling them in tiers, crosswise, until the pile was even with the surface of the water. Then we wheeled sand and gravel upon it, and, by the end of the second day, we had completed a structure which we looked upon with no little pride. Its eastward or outer end was solid rock, and all inside of that was solid dirt, brush and leaves. We could not see why it should not stand as firm and as long as the adjacent beach itself! A vessel was expected in a few days, with a large lot of machinery and supplies, and we rejoiced in the fact that we had a dock upon which they could be landed. On the third day, we continued to improve it by corduroying the surface, and by night of that day, it was, in our eyes, a thing of beauty to behold. Our chagrin may be imagined, when, on rising the next morning, we found that a gentle sea had come in during the night and wafted our dock to some unknown point. Not a trace of it remained; not even a poplar leaf was left to mark the spot. The sand of the beach was as clean and smooth as if it had never been disturbed by the hand of man. I wrote in the smooth sand with a stick, "This is the spot where Capt. Moody built his dock." The Captain trod upon the record, and said I would get my discharge at the end of the month, but he either forgot or forgave the affront. It was a long time before any one had the hardihood to attempt the building of another dock.

The propellers would come to anchor, sometimes as far as two miles from the shore, and the freight and passengers had to be landed in small boats. Our large boilers, when they arrived, were plugged, thrown overboard and floated ashore, and the other machinery was landed with our Mackinac boat, or a scow which we had constructed. Cattle and horses were always pitched overboard and made to swim ashore.

Under the lead of James Kelly, the boss carpenter, who was from Boston, we improved our time, after 6 o'clock each evening, in erecting a log house for sleeping quarters for our particular party. When finished, we called it the Revere House, after the hotel of that name in Boston. This building stood on its original site as late as 1860. * *

About this time, we realized the necessity of procuring hay for our stock. A man called Jim Presque Isle informed Capt. Moody that he knew of a large meadow a short distance above Presque Isle, covered with superb blue-joint grass; the only trouble was that it was flooded with water too deep to admit of mowing, but he thought we could, with shovels, in a few hours, cut a drain out to the lake which would carry the water off. So off we started in our boat, armed with shovels, axes, scythes, rakes and pitchforks Capt. Moody nervously staked out the ground for the canal, and we dug each way from the center for four or five hours, and at last opened both ends simultaneously, when, to our consternation, the waters of the lake rushed in and raised that on the meadow three or four inches! We were not more than five minutes embarking all our tools and getting off. We tried to keep still about the matter, but it leaked out some way, and was the source of a great deal of sport.

We continued clearing up the land south of Superior street, preparing the ground for a forge, machine shop, sawmill and coal house. Some time in August, the schooner Fur Trader arrived, bringing a large number of Germans, some Irish and a few French. Among this party were August Machts, George Rublein, Francis Dolf, and Patrick, James and Michael Atfield. All these have resided here continuously up to the present time, have been and are good citizens, and have become men of property. Graveraet and Clark had been to Milwaukee and hired and shipped them on a vessel. It was the cholera year; Clark died at the Sault on his way back; several others had died on the vessel, and many were landed very sick. We were all frightened; but the Indians, who lived here to the number of about one hundred, had everything embarked in their boats and canoes within sixty minutes, and started over the waters to escape a disease to them more fearful than the small pox. Now the medical talent of Dr. Rogers was called into requisition. He laid aside the hoe and ax he had learned to handle so dexterously, and took up the practice of his profession. It was found, on examination, that there were no real cases of cholera, but many of the newcomers had the typhoid or ship fever, and that it was contagious was soon evident, for the doctor, and perhaps a dozen of our young men who had never known sickness before, were soon stricken down with it. Each one of my companions had, in succession, taken the position of nurse in the hospital (a rude building called a hospital had been erected), and had in regular order been taken down with the malignant fever. It was my turn next; I looked upon it as a new promotion, abandoned my oxen, glad of a change, having no fear that I would catch the fever, and I did not. About the time I went in, Dr. Rogers was very low, indeed, unable to lisp a word, and to this fact I attribute the recovery of himself and associates; for, as I knew nothing of medicines, I discarded them altogether, and, by advice of Mr. Harding, Mr. Emmons and Mrs. Wheelock, I commenced rubbing and bathing them, and, Mrs. Wheelock furnishing suitable food, the result was that in two weeks they were all convalescent. Dr. Rogers often said afterward, "If I could have told the fool what medicine to give, he would have killed us all."

At this time, the first steam boiler ever set up in this county was ready to be filled with water, and it must be done the first time by hand. It was a locomotive boiler, and was afterward put into the side-wheel steamer Fogy, which plied between Marquette and Chocolay so many years. A dollar and a half was offered for the job, and I took it; working three days and a night or two, I succeeded in filling it. Steam was got up, and I then was installed as engineer and fireman. * * * * *

That summer there were but few boats of any kind on the lake. The propeller Independence was generally broken down, and the little propeller Napoleon only came three or four times during the season. The reliable mail, freight and passenger craft was the schooner Fur Trader, commanded by the veteran Capt. Calvin Ripley, from whom the picturesque rock in Marquette Bay took its name. The Fur Trader was a small sail vessel, and usually made a trip in three or four weeks; but it was toward the last of October, and neither she nor any other craft had put in an appearance for nine or ten weeks. The stock of provisions was quite low; the butter and luxuries of all kinds were wholly exhausted; only a few barrels of pork and flour remained, and the danger of being put on very short rations was imminent. Then Mr. Harding discovered, or pretended to discover, a conspiracy among the Germans to seize the warehouse and confiscate what provisions were left. He volunteered to command a guard to watch the warehouse day and night. The provisions were doled out sparingly, the Germans becoming very much dissatisfied, and, a short time after (in November), they "struck," and a large number of them started out of the country, intending to follow the lake shore to Grand Island, and go from there overland to Little Bay de Noquette. Only a few reached Grand Island; the weaker ones, foot-sore, weary and hungry, lagged at different points along the beach, and probably many of them would have perished but for the return of those of the party who had reached Grand Island, and there learned that a propeller, loaded with provisions, had arrived here the next day after they left. So they returned, and the cheering news revived the drooping spirits of their comrades, as they came up to them here and there along the beach, and they finally all got back, wiser and better men None of the Germans named as still residing here went off with the party. * * * * * * On the 27th of November, our boat was started for. Sault Ste. Marie, in charge of James Hilliard (sometimes called Jim Presque Isle). John H. Mann, Mr. Emmons and a German boy named Kellogg, accompanied him; they were all drowned, the boat being afterward found with two bodies in it, While the body of Mr. Emmons was not recovered till the following spring.

As I have told two stories that militate against Capt. Moody's skill as an engineer, it is only fair that I should relate one which redounds to his credit as a navigator. We had by some means been apprised of the fact that the schooners Swallow and Siskiwit, which had been loaded with grain and supplies for us at Sault Ste. Marie, had run by and laid up for the winter at L'Anse. The grain was absolutely necessary to keep the horses from starving. Capt. Moody promptly started for L'Anse, accompanied by James Broadbent an old salt-water sailor. On their arrival there, they found both the vessels stripped and laid up, and, what was worse, frozen in the ice. But Moody had pluck enough to undertake any task, no matter how difficult or dangerous. He and his man went to work at once to refit one of the vessels—the Siskiwiton the principle that might makes right. They paid no attention whatever to the urgent protests of her owner, Capt. James Bendry. They filled her with corn and oats from the Swallow, and employed a large number of Indians to cut a passage between two and three miles long, through the ice, so as to float the vessel out into the open water. They got her out on Christmas Eve, and arrived here on Christmas Day, the sails frozen stiff and immovable, and the ice a foot thick on her deck. They had not seen land from the time they left L'Anse until they reached Marquette Bay, a heavy northwest gale and snow storm prevailing all the time. The vessel was unloaded and run into Chocolate River, where she lay until spring, when, in coming out, she ran on the beach and went to pieces.

During that winter we had three or four mails only. Mr. Harlow was the first Postmaster, and hired the Indian Jimmeca to go to L'Anse after the mail at a cost of $10 per trip. I believe the cost was made up by subscription.

The Jackson Company had about suspended operations; their credit was at a low ebb; their agent had left in the fall, and was succeeded by "Czar" Jones, the President, but nearly all work was stopped, and the men talked seriously of hanging and quartering Mr. Jones, who soon after left the country. * * * In the spring (1850), the Jackson Company "bust" all up, and all work at their mine and forge was suspended. By this time, the Marquette Iron Company's forge was nearly completed and ready for making blooms. Many dwellings, shops, etc., had been erected, together with a small dock at which steamers could land. This dock still forms the shore end of the Cleveland Company's merchandise pier. * * *

In the fall of 1850, B. F. Eaton, and his brother, Watt Eaton, arrived from Columbus, Ohio. They had leased the old Jackson Forge and Mine, and brought with them an immense number of men and horses, and a large quantity of supplies. They commenced operations with a grand flourish of trumpets and high sounding words that bid fair to eclipse and crush everybody else out of existence in short order. They burst all to pieces within a year, and never paid their men a dollar in money; those who took goods for pay were wise. Ben Eaton was so disgusted with the country that he finally left the United States and went to Australia, and, as far as I know, has never returned. * *

In the summer of 1851, we had pretty hard times generally; no money, and not much of anything else. I think it was in September of that year the county was organized. I was absent up the lake shore, fishing, at the time, and, on my return, was informed that I had been elected County Clerk and Register of Deeds. I told my informant (Amos Parish) that I was not of age; to which he replied that the impression generally prevailed that I was over thirty, that no one would say anything if I did not, and that it was very desirable to have some one hold those offices who could write. I was flattered, and consented. Up to this time, we had been attached to Houghton County, the county seat being at Eagle River.

On one occasion, I was sent, in the dead of winter, on foot and alone, up to Eagle River to get the County Clerk's certificate to a lot of legal documents. I went to L'Anse, thence across the ice to Portage Entry, up the river, over Portage Lake, and across the Portage to Eagle River. I called on Mr. Kelsey, the County Clerk, and attended to the business I had in hand. He inquired, "When do you return?" "Tomorrow." "Oh, no," said he; "we never allow a winter visitor to depart under two weeks, and, as you are the first man who has ever come from Marquette or Carp River up here by land, we must give you a good time." Mr. S. W. Hill and Henry Parke came in, and between the three they agreed that I should have a big party the next night. The thought occurred to me whether I had not better cut and run for home, but I concluded if I should, and they caught me, it would go hard with me; so I resolved to stay, and, if necessary, run the gantlet, or fight for my liberty if cornered. The next day, Dr. L. W. Clarke, John Senter, George Senter, William Morrison, William Webb, Joe Thatcher and others called, paid their respects and tendered various civilities. I watched them all closely, but could not discover that my suspicions of a conspiracy against me were well founded. The gay party came off the next evening, and all my fears were dispelled. I was invited the next night to a party at Eagle River, and, when I argued that my apparel was not suited for parties, I was forcibly taken into Senter's store, and there compelled to put on an elegant suit of clothes; and for the next eight or ten days I was put through such a round of pleasures and hospitable attentions never before nor since witnessed by me. I could not have been more civilly feasted and toasted had I been the President. Such was the hospitality of the early settlers of the copper region.

At last, when I was about to leave, I was offered silver specimens, agates, or anything else they had. My wants were, however, few and simple, and I said, "Give me two cans of those elegant cove oysters to take to my Carp River friends, and I will be delighted." I worked my way back as far as Portage Entry, and found the ice in L'Anse Bay all broken up. Mr. Ransom Sheldon then lived at the Entry, buying fish and furs from the Indians. At that day, copper mining on Portage Lake had not been dreamt of. After my arrival at the Entry, I was laid up for three days with the "Le mal de Racket," or snow-shoe sickness. As soon as I could travel, I set out through the woods for the Catholic Mission. I knew nothing of the route except to keep in sight of the bay, and that I soon found was impracticable, owing to the impenetrable nature of the underbrush; so I struck back for better walking. The distance I had to go to reach the mission was sixteen miles, and it seemed to me I had traveled thirty. I had no dinner; it was very cold—twenty-two degrees below zerothe 18th of January; night was close at hand. I crossed a little valley, and, as I mounted the hill, I looked back of me and caught the only glance of the sun I had that day. I knew that to reach the mission I ought to be going toward the setting sun! I turned my course in that direction, and, in a short time, came across a single snow-shoe track, and was much pleased to think I was getting where some one else had so recently been; before long I crossed another track similar to the first, and soon a third. A little closer examination convinced me that they were all my own tracks, and that for hours I had been traveling on a circle, only enlarging it a little each time. It was now rapidly growing dark. Fortunately, I had matches, but I had no ax, nor any provisions, except the two cans of cove oysters. I succeeded in starting a fire at the foot of a dead cedar that leaned over into the forks of a hemlock, and, as fast as it burned to a coal, it would slide down a little, and thus my fire was replenished all night. I was too much excited to be either tired or hungry that night. I slept some in an upright or sitting posture, before the fire; the snow was about five feet deep, and I had shaped an indentation of my own figure, like a chair, into the snow, and lined it with balsam boughs, so that it was quite comfortable. In the morning, after breaking all the blades of my Congress knife in opening one of the cans of "elegant cove oysters," I boiled them in the can and tried to eat them; but it was hard work; they wouldn't stay down. Through the kindness of the good Bishop Baraga, who knew that I was either hurt or lost (he had left the Entry after I did), an Indian was sent out, and found me about 3 o'clock, and before dark I was safely housed at the mission. After many more hardships, I succeeded in reaching home. * *

I have in this paper merely touched upon some of the incidents of the first two or three years of the history of Marquette and the iron region. A few houses, a stumpy road winding along the lake shore; a forge which burnt up after impoverishing its first owners; a trail westward, just passable for wagons, leading to another forge (still more unfortunate in that it did not burn up), and to the undeveloped iron hills beyond; a few hundred people uncertain of the future—these were all there was of Marquette in 1851-52.

Little did we think that the region we came to settle would, in so short a time, be known and felt everywhere; that its mineral products would be borne by hundreds of vessels to the ports of all the great lakes. The Sault Canal was then a project the consummation of which was devoutly wished, but not realized; and the boldest of us had not dreamed of a railroad from our little hamlet to the iron hills. We were "building better than we knew." We had fallen into the march of the century, not knowing whither it would lead us. We were like the fishermen of the Arabian Nights, who ignorantly opened a small sealed casket which they had drawn out of the sea in their nets. It held an imprisoned genii, who emerged at first like a little vapor, which while they wondered, spread and ascended, until it towered up like a vast column toward heaven.

The forge referred to in the foregoing paper was completed and made the first bloom in just one year from the day Mr. Harlow landed with his men. It started with four fires, using ores from what are now the Cleveland and Lake Superior Mines. It continued in operation, rather irregularly, until 1853, when the Marquette Company was merged into the Cleveland, under the auspices of which latter company the works were operated, until destroyed by fire in the winter of 1853.

In 1852, John Downey, Samuel Barney and others, began the construction of a forge on the Little Carp, but, after building a few houses, a wheel, etc., abandoned the enterprise.


Marquette County was established by Legislative act, approved March 9, 1843, which declared that all that portion of the State between the line between Ranges 23 and 24 west, the north boundary of Township 41, the line between Ranges 37 and 38 west, and Lake Superior, should form the county of Marquette, and be attached to Chippewa County for judicial purposes. The act of March 19, 1845, was of a re-organic character, amending the act of 1843.


The general election for Marquette County was held November 4, 1851, when the following vote was recorded: For Governor, Robert McClellan, 53, and T. E. Gridley, 8; for Lieutenant Governor, Calvin Britain, 53, and George H. Hazleton, 8; Judge of Probate, Philo M. Everett, 62; Sheriff, James D. Watt, 62; Register, Peter White, 62; Clerk, John S. Livermore, 62; Treasurer, Charles Johnson, 62; Surveyor, John Burt, 61.

On September 28, 1852, a general election was held. For Senator, Luther W. Clark received 44 votes, and Henry Acker 26; for Representative, Heman B. Ely received 46, and John S. Livermore 25; for Sheriff, Silas C. Smith, 28; Reuben H. Barrett, 14; and Harvey Moore, 29; for Coroners, Cullen C. Eddy, 21; Harvey Moore, 15; A. R. Harlow, 1; for County Clerk, W. S. McCombs, 25; Peter White, 46; Register, Amos R. Harlow, 24; Peter White, 46; for Treasurer, C. Johnson, 51; George Riplein, 12; for Probate Judge P. M. Everett, 39; Ariel N. Barney, 31; Surveyor, William Halo, 69; John P. Hale, 1; Adam Gorton, 1; for Circuit Court Commissioner, Heman B. Ely, 43; William S. McCombs, 3.


1851-Sheriff, James D. Watt; Probate Judge, P. M. Livermore; Clerk, J. S Livermore; Register, Peter White; Treasurer, Charles Johnson.

1852-Sheriff, Harvey Moore; Probate Judge, P. M. Everett; Clerk and Register, Peter White; Treasurer, Charles Johnson.

1854-Sheriff, George T. Barney; Clerk and Register, Peter White; Treasurer, Charles Johnson.

1856-Sheriff, George T. Barney; Probate Judge, A. N. Barney; Clerk, Amos R. Harlow; Register, M. H. Maynard; Treasurer, Charles Johnson.

1857-Attorney, Matthew H. Maynard, vice R. J. Graveraet, not eligible.

1858-Sheriff, R. F. L. Whittlesey; Probate Judge, A. N. Barney; Clerk, J. J. St. Clair; Register, M. H. Maynard; Treasurer, C. Donkersley.

1859-Attorney, Matthew H. Maynard.

1860-Sheriff, Henry Wollner; Probate Judge, M. W. Earle; Clerk and Register, M. H. Maynard; Treasurer, P. M. Everett.

1862-Sheriff, Samuel Kaufman; Probate Judge, M. W. Earle; Clerk, Henry J. Collwell; Register, C. M. W. Earle; Treasurer, M. H. Maynard.

1863-Attorney, Matthew H. Maynard; Circuit Judges, Daniel Goodwin, Clarence C. Eddy and James O'Grady.

1864-Sheriff, Charles Barney; Probate Judge, A. N. Barney; Clerk and Register, C. M. W. Earle; Treasurer, T. T. Hurley.

1866-Sheriff; Charles Barney; Probate Judge, A. N. Barney; Clerk and Register, Stephen Rice; Treasurer, James Matthews; Attorney, Henry D. Smith.

1868-Sheriff, Charles Crowley; Probate Judge, A. G. Benedict; Clerk and Register, S. M. Billings; Treasurer, H. D. Smith; Attorney, Marlow H. Crocker.

1870-Sheriff, Charles Crowley; Probate Judge, A. G. Benedict; Clerk and Register, Daniel Wynne; Treasurer, James Matthews; Attorney, Marlow H. Crocker.

1872-Sheriff, Jacob Dolf; Probate Judge, Ed S. Hardy; Clerk and Register, F. M. Moore; Treasurer, H. E. Hayden; Attorney, James E. Dalliba.

1874-Sheriff, Jacob Dolf; Probate Judge, E. S. Hardy; Clerk and Register, F. M. Moore; Treasurer, W. C. McComber Attorney, C. P. Black.

1875-Circuit Judge, William D. Williams.

1876-Sheriff, A. A. Anderson; Probate Judge, E. S. Hardy; Clerk and Register, William Rowland; Treasurer, R. Nelson; Attorney, John Q. Adams.

1878—Sheriff, A. A. Anderson; Probate Judge, E. S. Hardy; Clerk and Register, William Rowland; Treasurer, J. E. Ward; Attorney, John Q. Adams.

1880-Sheriff, John Jeffrey; Probate Judge, E. S. Hardy; Clerk and Register, William Rowland; Treasurer, J. E. Ward, B. W. Wright; Attorney, John Q. Adams.

1881-Circuit Judge, Claudius B. Grant.

Marquette Township was established under authority given in act of Legislature March 16, 1847. It included all the territory previously set off as the county of Marquette. The first meeting was ordered to be held at the house of Lucius M. Thayer, in June, 1847.

Although the township of Marquette was established in 1847, there is no record of a town meeting being held that year, nor even the year following. July 3, 1850, a notice signed by R. J. Graveraet, Samuel Moody, Lorenzo Harding, Norman E. Eddy and A. R. Harlow, intimated that a town meeting would be held on July 15, at the house of A. M. Harlow. The officers elected were: A. R. Harlow, Supervisor; R. J. Graveraet, Clerk; A. R. Harlow and E. C. Rogers, School Inspectors; R. J. Graveraet, Treasurer; Joshua Hodgkins, Director of Poor; Samuel Moody, Charles Johnson and A. R. Harlow, Road Commissioners; Samuel Moody, N. E. Eddy, Czar Jones, Justices; A. N. Barney, A. H. Mitchell and Charles Johnston, Constables.

The voters present at this election, then being all the electors in the county, were Samuel Moody, Edmund C. Rogers, Amos R. Harlow, Robert J. Graveraet, Ariel N. Barney, Lorenzo Harding, Francis Benson, James E. Peltier, Abner H. Mitchell, William Bellows, Joshua Hodgkins, Edgar Kidney, John W. Wood, Silas C. Smith, A. W. Vall, Milton Meacham, Ebenezer Farr, Bela T. Chapman and William Lakin.

In November of the same year, and in 1851, the names of J. P. C. Emmons, Philo M. Everett, Basil Bishop, R. H. Barret, Charles Johnson, Ruel Knapp, E. R. Remington, appear upon the records.

The permanent organization of the township was effected in April, 1853. P. M. Everett was elected Supervisor; Ackland H. Jones, Clerk; Peter White, Treasurer; A. N. Barney and A. H. Jones, Assessors; Ruel Knapp and Ralph G. Roundz, Justices; P. M. Everett, School Inspector; William Hale, Road Commissioner; A. Whiting, N. Carpenter, Sam L. Burt and Charles Parrish, Constables; Cullen C. Eddy, Overseer of Highways.

Chocolate Township was established by order of the County Board, dated March 17, 1860. The township embraced Towns 42, 43, 44, 45, 46 and 47 north, of Range 24 west. The first meeting was held at the office of Edwards & Co., near the mouth of the Chocolate, April 2, 1860, with Charles Brotherton, E. R. Remington and Alex Bigger, Inspectors.

The offices of Clerk and Register were united in September, 1860.


The first special meeting of the board was held at the house of Philo M. Everett September 13, 1852, with P. M. Everett, Chairman, and Peter White, Deputy County Clerk, Secretary. The object of the meeting was the settlement of outstanding claims. Andrew Backus, Register of United States lands at Sault de Ste. Marie, claimed $25 for transcribing list of lands bought in the county of Marquette. The board allowed $15. Jeremiah Crane, late Sheriff of Chippewa County, claimed $64.88 for keeping prisoner, Cadotte, in jail 173 days. Sheriff Sylvester Smith, then of Chippewa County, claimed $48.63 for sundry services. Sheldon McKnight claimed $20 for passage of Deputy Sheriff and his prisoner to Sault Ste. Marie on steamer Baltimore. John S. Livermore claimed $5 for five days' services as Clerk of the District Court. Heman B. Ely claimed $10 for the use of railroad office for holding the first session of the District Courtall of which claims were allowed. The board then considered the assessment roll, and determined that 2 per cent should be levied on all taxable property in the county.

The annual meeting of 1852 was held in October. The following claims were presented and allowed: D. James Watt, $51.05, for services as Sheriff; Samuel L. Burt, $4 for services as Constable during the last term of District Court; A. N. Barney claimed $41.61 for Justice's fees; P. M. Everett claimed $4 for copying assessment, and $24.50 for sundry services; Ruel Knapp claimed $2 for Justice's fees, and $3 for two days' services on Supervisors' Board; Peter White claimed $6.50 for sundry services as County Clerk.

In June, 1853, $84.50 was paid to Palmer Whipple, of Detroit, for books and stationery; Peter White received $18 for a seal of the District Court, postage, books, etc., S. Dow Elwood received $5 for seal press; and Justin Shapley was granted $17.99 for transcribing records belonging to Marquette County from those of Houghton County and Registers' certificates.

In October, 1853, the board pursued a course of prompt payments to claimants, except in the following instance: "Jonathan Benson, Esq., for causing the death of a poor wolf by means of poison, after serious consideration, was allowed the sum of $4." A note to this memorandum says, "Never was paid and never will be."


Marquette Township1851-52, P. M. Everett; 1853, P. M. Everett; 1854, J. J. St. Clair; 1855, J. J. St. Clair; 1856, James P. Pendill; 1857-58, James J. St. Clair; 1859, J. P. Pendill; 1860, J. P. Pendill; 1860, J. J. St Clair; 1861, J. J. St. Clair; 1861, J. P. Pendill; 1862, J. P. Pendill; 1863, Joseph W. Edwards; 1864, Peter White; 1865, J. W. Edwards, Dan H. Ball; 1866, Samuel P. Ely; 1867, Peter White; 1868, Jeffrey Coles; 1869, Jeffrey Coles; 1869,—; 1870, Jeffrey Coles; 1871, H. A. Stone; 1872, H. A. Stone; 1873, Jacob Woesner; 1874, Jacob Woesner; 1875, Jacob Woesner; 1876, Jacob Woesner; 1877, Jacob Woesner; 1878, Matt Schweisthal; 1879, J. G. Reynolds; 1880, Riner Koch; 1881, Henry Siegel; 1882-83, Alphonse Bertrand.

Teal Lake Township1858-59, E. C. Hungerford.

Negaunee Township1860, E. C. Hungerford; 1860, T. J. Spellman; 1861, T. J. Spellman; 1861, Henry J. Collwell; 1862, Henry J. Collwell; 1863, Henry J. Collwell; 1864, Henry J. Collwell; 1865, William P. Healy; 1866, William P. Healy; 1867, William P. Healy; 1868, William P. Healy; 1869, William P. Healy; 1870, John Mulvey; 1871, John Mulvey; 1872, John Mulvey; 1873, J. E. Barnum; 1874, W. J. Chase; 1875, W. J. Chase; 1876, William Rae; 1877-83, F. W. Reid.

Chocolay Township1860, Albert Day; 1860, Albert Day; 1861, Albert Day; 1861, Joseph W. Edwards; 1862, H. S. Bacon; 1863, H. S. Bacon; 1864, William G. Boswell; 1865, William G. Boswell; 1866, David Preston; 1867, William G. Boswell; 1868-83, Lor D. Harvey.

Ishpeming Township1868, Ben W. Wright; 1869, G. D. Johnston; 1870, B. M. Collwell; 1871, B. M. Collwell; 1872, B. M. Collwell; 1873, W. H. Murray; 187376, P. T. Tracey; 1877, A. K. Godshall; 1878, Charles Merryweather; 1879, Charles Merryweather; 1880, Josiah Broad; 1881, Josiah Broad; 1882-83, E. B. Howard.

Ely Township1871, Henry J. Colwell; 1872, Henry J. Colwell; 1872, John R. Case; 1873, John R. Case; 1874, Charles G. Blake; 1875, Charles J. Hussey; 1876, Charles J. Hussey; 1877, George Mitchell; 1878, George Mitchell; 1879, Thomas J. Dundon; 1880, Ed A. Maas; 1881-83, Ed A. Maas.

Munising Township was organized in 1869, when John Murray was elected Supervisor. David Sang was elected in 1870, and, the year following, the town passed into Schoolcraft County.

Forsyth Township1872, Wallace Pearce; 1873, Wallace Pearce; 1874, Wallace Pearce; 1875-83, J. F. Stevens.

Tilden Township1873, Ebenezer Rowland; 1876, George 0. Houston; 1877, W. L. Mann; 1878, Charles A. Anderson; 1879, Alfred Newcombe; 1880-83, Richard P. Ellis.

Richmond Township1873, James E. Clark; 1874, Rob M. Gilleland; 1875, Robert G. Murray; 1876-83, Joseph Kirkpatrick.

Republic Township1875-82, Peter Pascoe.

Michigamme Township1877, James Pascoe; 1878, J. O. Camph; 1879, Michael Gleason; 1880, Michael Gleason; 1881-83, John P. Christopher.

Champion Township-Robert McKay, November 5, 1878; James Pascoe, April 7, 1870; James Pascoe, April 5, 1880; James Pascoe, April 4, 1881; James Pascoe, April 3, 1882.

Crystal Falls Township-Patrick E. Dunn, May 29, 1882.

Iron River Township-Daniel J. Lay, May 29, 1882.

Ishpeming City-1873, W. E. Dickenson; 1873, George Sheldon; 1873, J. E. Morrison; 1874, Charles A. Anderson; 1874, George Sheldon; 1874, W. H. Murray; 1875, Henry H. Mildon; 1875, Hiram Morley; 1875, William H. Murray; 1876-77, Andrew Larson; 1876-77, Charles H. Hall: 1876-77, Judson E. Ayers; 1878, Andrew Larson; 1878, Charles H. Hall; 1878, William Sedgwick; 1879, William C. Uren; 1879, C. H. Hall; 1879, William Sedgwick; 1880, William Uren; 1880, C. H. Hall: 1880, William Sedgwick; 1881, Andrew Sandbery; 1881, C. H. Hall; 1881, William Sedgwick; 1872-83, Leman D. Doty; 1882-83, Charles H. Hall 1882-83, Timothy F. Donohue.

In the histories of Marquette and Negaunee, the names of the Supervisors of these cities are given.

The following is the table of equalization on which the taxes for 1881-82 were levied:

CITIES AND TOWNSHIPS. As Assessed As Equalized for County Purposes. Mining Property Exempt from State Tax. As Equalized for  State Tax.

Ishpeming City

$696,785 $635,000 $460,700 $174,300

Negaunee City

345,445 330,000 161,600 168,400

Marquette City

519,552 450,000 ........... 450,000

Marquette Township

73,420 60,000 ........... 60,000

Ishpeming Township

158,810 155,000 51,700 103,300

Negaunee Township

42,140 40,000 ........... 40,000

Forsyth Township

166,330 170,000 4,600 165,400

Chocolay Township

168,135 160,000 ........... 160,000

Tilden Township

113,540 115,000 32,100 82,900

Richmond Township

72,620 70,000 25,750 44,250

Ely Township

892,010 850,000 34,280 815,720

Republic Township

493,235 500,000 138,300 361,700

Michigamme Township

214,325 205,000 51,730 153,270

Champion Township

200,220 200,000 74,300 125,700


$4,156,540 $3,940,000 $1,035,060 $2, 904,940


The United States lands in Marquette County, open for entry October 1, 1881, amounted to 223,600 acres; 200 acres of State swamp, and 42,405 acres of school lands. The Detroit, Mackinac & Marquette Railroad Company's lands in the county remaining unsold October 1, 1881, were 240,217 acres; the Chicago & North Western Company's lands, 188,500 acres; and the Michigan Land and Iron Company's, about 200,000 acres.

The population as recorded in the United States and State returns from 1850 to 1880 is as follows: 1850, 136; 1860, 2,821; 1864, 3,724; 1870, 14,278; 1874, 21,946; 1880, 25,393.

The first returns made from this county to the Census Bureau were those of 1850, when a total population of 136 white persons was reported.

In 1860, the first returns by townships were furnished. That year, Chocolay Township claimed a population of 202 whites, 1 half-breed and ten Indians; Marquette Township, 1,589, whites, 58 colored persons or half-breeds and 17 Indians; and Negaunee, 943 whites and 1 half-breed.

The population, as given in reports of 1870, was as follows: Chocolay, 260 whites; Ishpeming, 6,094 whites and 8 Indians; Marquette, 4,497 whites, 58 half-breeds or colored persons and 62 Indians; Marquette City, 3,880 whites, together with the same number of half-breeds and Indians credited to the township; Munissing, 797 whites and 2 Indians; Negaunee, 3,252 whites and 2 half-breeds; Negaunee City, 2,557 whites and 2 colored persons.

The population of Marquette County by political divisions in 1880 was as follows:

Townships—Champion, 1,482; Chocolay, 974: Ely, 1,011; Forsyth, 291; Ishpeming, 1,967; Marquette, 211; Michigamme, 1,124; Negaunee, 335; Republic, 1,787; Richmond, 750; Tilden, 802.

Marquette City, 4,690-First Ward, 707; Second Ward, 1,329; Third Ward, 665; Fourth Ward, 1,989.

Ishpeming City, 6,039-First Ward, 2,981; Second Ward, 1,561; Third Ward, 1,497.

Negaunee City, 3,931-First Ward, 1,535; Second Ward, 1,329; Third Ward, 1,068.

The total population was 25,393, including 88 Indians.

The population in June, 1880, was 25,393, made up as follows: 14,759 males and 10,634 females; 11,868 natives and 13,525 foreigners; 25,239 whites and 154 colored persons, the latter number including 88 Indians.

Area in acres, 2,176,000 acres; farms, 98; acres improved, 3,407.


When Pericles was called upon to deliver the oration over those who had fallen in the first campaign of the Peloponnesian war (according to Thucydides), he began by extolling Athens, and, having expatiated upon her glories, her institutions and her sciences, concluded by exclaiming, "For such a republic, for such a nation, the people whom we this day mourn fell and died." In referring to the "roll of honor," which, nearly twenty years ago combined to defeat treason in this our native land, it may not be inappropriate to recur briefly to the condition of that country when the mighty arm of military power was invoked that the majesty of the law might be maintained. The nineteenth century dawned upon tthmountains.orious in the promise of a prophetic infancy. Tyranny and oppression, twin offspring of an inhuman parent, had been strangled but a few years before. In 1860, the development of the resources of the States was but just beginning, and, under an acceptable and wholesome form of government, progressing rapidly. The finances of the country, notwithstanding the panic of 1857, were in a healthy and promising condition. Money was plenty, times "flush," to use a suggestive expression of the day; the factory and loom made music all the day long, and the voice of the husbandman was heard amid the fields of ripening grain. Everywhere and on every side, evidences of prosperity were manifest. In bleak New England and the Sunny South, at the East and in the city beside the bay whose waters ebb and flow through the Golden Gate, comfort, contentment and happiness was the trinity to be found at every fireside. The commercial and marine interests were second to no nation on the globe; its paper was "gilt-edged," to express it commercially, and the white sails of America's shipping were almost as numerous on the seas as the whitecaps that crested the waves. Immigration from Continental Europe landed on our shores in an endless stream, contributing to the wealth, as also to the horny-handed element of strength and industry, without which nations go down to welcomed penury and forgetfulness. At every hearthstone and in every household, when the thoughts of home and country came, a prayer of thanksgiving went up to the Great Father that our love was not lavished in vain, and man was enab1ed to rise from the sorrows and disappointments of his every-day life as sunset's red glories or the moon's silver hair floating down the broad-breasted mountains.

The rumbling of the coming storm had been heard at intervals in the halls of Congress, on the stump, in the pulpit at the hustings, when a Toombs or a Yancey lifted up a voice in defense of the slave power and its extension into the Territories. But its admonitions came and went as the idiosyncrasies of radical intolerance. As a result, many have gone before, and wait upon the threshold of Paradise for the coming of those loved ones left behind, who have exchanged the feeble pulses of a transitory existence for the ceaseless throbbings of eternal life. Faithful and fearless on the march, in the strife and at the victory or defeat, they at last lay down at the mysterious frontier, leaving the exalted hope behind that, though the world was lost forever, there would be unfurled another realm of unimaginable glory, where they and all whom they loved on earth might realize the promise which the Great Ruler of the Universe has made unto the just.

These "idiosyncrasies," as will be remembered, culminated on the 12th of April, 1861, when Fort Sumter, off Charleston, was fired into by the rebels. Notwithstanding this overt act of treason, this first act in the bloody reality which followed was looked upon as mere bravado; but when, a day later, Maj. Anderson's surrender was announced, the patriotic people of the North were startled from their dream of the future, from undertakings half completed, and made to realize that behind all there was a dark, deep and well determined purpose to destroy the Government, and, upon its ruins, erect an oligarchy, the cornerstone of which should be slavery. But the dreams of these marplots were doomed to disappointment. Their plans for the establishment of a "Southern Confederacy" were to be overthrown, if not in their inception, before realization.

Immediately upon the promulgation of the news of the surrender, President Lincoln, who, but a few short weeks before had taken the oath of office, issued his call for troops in the following


WHEREAS, The laws of the United States have been, and are now, violently opposed in several States by combinations too powerful to be suppressed in the ordinary way, I therefore call for the militia of the several States of the Union to the aggregate number of 75,000, to suppress said combination and execute the laws. I appeal to all lawful citizens to facilitate and aid in this effort to maintain the laws and the integrity of the perpetuity of the popular government, and redress wrongs long enough endured. The first service assigned to the forces, probably, will be to repossess the forts, places and property which have been seized from the Union. Let the utmost care be taken, consistent with the object, to avoid devastation, destruction, interference with the property of peaceful citizens in any part of the country; and I hereby command the persons composing the aforesaid combination to disperse within twenty days from date.

I hereby convene both Houses of Congress for the 4th day of July next, to determine npon measures of public safety, which the interest of the subject demands.

ABRAHAM LDNCOLN, President of the United States. WDLLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State.

The gauntlet thus thrown down by the traitors of the South was accepted in a firm, determined spirit of patriotism and love of country. The world knows with what ready assent the people of the North responded to the call for the defense of that Union they hoped to preserve. The world knows how they, in the strength of this hope, struggled and fought with the legions of wrong till the armor of many was caught in the glint and sunlight of eternity, ere the dews had gone to heaven or the stars had gone to God.

The aggregate expenditures of Marquette and Schoolcraft for war purposes up to 1866 was $3,000, and for the relief of soldiers' families, by Marquette County, $7,989.16.

The troops furnished by Marquette County for the defense of the Union previous to January, 1864, were distributed as follows: First Infantry, 10 men; Eighth Infantry, 1; Twenty seventh Infantry, 42 men; First Sharpshooters, 5; First Cavalry, 1 man; Ninth Cavalry; 13 men; First Light Artillery, 2 men The total number of men furnished from the beginning of the war to January, 1864, was 185. The total number of men furnished by Marquette and Schoolcraft to the Michigan regiments, from the beginning to the close of the war was 265.

The Upper Peninsula is at present represented in the Second Battalion Michigan Militia, by Company A—Captain, John E Ward, December 8, 1874; First Lieutenant, William A. Jellison, April 7, 1879; Second Lieutenant, vacant; and volunteers, Company B—Captain Henry Wilkins, August 8, 1881; First Lieutenant, vacant; Second Lieutenant, John B. Curtiss, August 8, 1881; and volunteers.

It is acknowledged that never before in the world's history was witnessed such an uprising of the masses, such unanimity of sentiment, such willingness to sacrifice life and money on the altar of patriotism, as that which marked the years 1861-65.

When the first companies were being raised, measures were inaugurated and carried out to raise money by subscription for the support of the families of the volunteers. But there were so many calls for men, and the number and needs of these families whose providers had gone to defend the life of the nation, that it became an impossibility for private purses, however willing their holders, to supply all the demand, and the county authorities made frequent and liberal appropriations from the public treasury for that purpose. Private liberality still continued. This money was raised in the midst of the excitement of war, when the exigencies of the times demanded it, and the generous people never thought to inquire how much was given. Aside from the sums appropriated by county authority, no account was ever kept. Had there been, the sum would now seem almost fabulous.


Marquette City, two stone, one brick, one frame building, valued at $75,000; number of children of school age, 1,807; number who attended in 1881, 1,099; expenditures for year 1881, $14,632 98; amount paid teachers, $4,984.40.

Marquette Township, two frame buildings, valued at $1.700; 100 children of school age; expenditures for year 1881, $1,017.60.

Michigamme Township, one frame building, valued at $7,000; 309 children of school age; expenditures, $3,891.89.

Republic Township, school population, 463; one frame building, valued at $4, 500; expenditures for year 1881, $6,714.93.

Tilden Township, two frame buildings, valued at $6,100; 344 children of school age; expenditures for year 1881, $3,143.

Chocolay Township contains eight districts, four frame buildings and four log houses, all valued at $2,870; 280 children of school age; expenditures, $1,163.

Champion Township, two frame buildings, valued at $3,700; 460 school children; expenditures for year 1881, $5, 960.

Ely Township, two frame and two log buildings, former valued at $3,000, latter at $600; 331 children of school age; expenditures for year ending 1881, $4,563.

Forsyth Township, two frame and two log school buildings, valued at $1,400; sixty children of school age; expenses for year ending 1881, about $1,600 for the four districts.

Ishpeming Township, two frame buildings valued at $2,500; number of children, 212; expenditures for year ending 1881, $3,977.16.

Negaunee City, number of children of school age, 1,407; number who attended school in 1881, 760; number of buildings, four; value of property, $17,000; paid teachers, $4,200; total expenditures for year 1881, $11,803.31.

Negaunee Township, one frame building, rented; number of children, 63; expenditures for year 1881, $704.50.


In January, 1823, Congress provided for a District Court, and the appointment of a Judge over the counties of Michilimackinac, Brown and Crawford. This court had concurrent jurisdiction with the Territorial Supreme Court, subject to an appeal to the Territorial Court. James Duane Doty was commissioned District Judge, to preside in May of each year, at Prairie du Chien; in June, at Green Bay; and in July, at Michilimackinac. In 1824, Henry S. Baird, of Brown County, was commissioned District Attorney. In May, 1832, Judge Doty was succeeded by David Irvin, who continued to act until the abrogation of the court. In 1850, the Upper Peninsula was constituted one judicial district. In 1851, Daniel Goodwin was elected Judge, and held the first court in Marquette County August 5, 1852.


The bar of Marquette County in 1882 comprised the following members: M. H. Maynard, Dan H. Ball, W. P. Healy, J. E. Dalliba, John Q. Adams, M. H. Crocker, E. J. Mapes, F. O. Clark, G. W. Hayden, E. E. Osborn, F. M. Moore, S. C. Hinsdale, Irwin D. Hanscom, A. B. Eldredge, C. M. Babcock, Gad Smith. The Judge of the Circuit Court was C. B. Grant. The officers of the court were: John Jeffery, Sheriff; William Rowland, Clerk; John Q. Adams, Prosecuting Attorney; S. W. Goodale, Reporter; James E. Dalliba and Eugene E. Osborn, Commissioners.


Backus, Sault Ste. Marie; Peter White, Marquette; Daniel H. Ball, Marquette; J. W. Edwards, Marquette; Ambrose Campbell, Marquette; Henry H. Stafford, Marquette.


Ebenezer Warner, Sault; Robert J. Graveraet, Marquette; Alex Campbell, Marquette; Henry H. Stafford, Marquette; James M. Wilkinson, Marquette.


The county poor house and farm are located within the limits of Marquette City. The building is almost new, and well adapted to the purpose for which it was constructed. The old poor house is still standing, close by. The institution is heated and ventilated on the most approved principles, and its management is very satisfactory. During the year ending September, 1881, the value of paupers' labor was estimated at $300; revenue from farm products, $500; amount paid for official services to the poor, and for their transportation and support, $1,939.91; medicine, funerals, food, fuel, clothing and other expenses in aid of extern poor, $15,867.17; average cost of each intern pauper for the year, $57.88. The total amount expended during the year in the care and support of the poor was $33,942.44. There was one legitimate and one illegitimate birth and eight deaths reported for 1881. The number of persons who received out door relief was 1,043 poor, 4 insane, 1 deaf and dumb and one in the Michigan Retreat. The whole number relieved was 1,154 persons.

To the northwest of Negaunee and north of Ishpeming lies an immense territory that has as yet been unexplored, principally for the reason that it was supposed by people generally to be barren of mineral entirely. Of late, however, several indications of iron have been found, and also the Ropes gold and silver vein, which goes to show that mineral really exists, and warrants further and more careful search being made. We can truly say that this mining field has as yet been only scratched over, and that the finds already made here are but the leaders to that which will certainly follow.

Developments on the extension of the Ropes vein during August, 1882, were of a character to satisfy its sanguine owners. Four cross cuts uncovered the vein at 50, 100 and 250 feet respectively, from B Shaft on the Ropes. The drift ranges from four to twelve feet on the lode. Cross-cut No. 2, where very rich rock was first struck and a blast put in, showed the vein to be six feet wide, apparently dipping south at a high angle. Twenty inches of the hanging is slate, with small veins of quartz. The slate assays $24 per ton. The quartz veins assay $18 per ton. The quartz of the lode proper, next to the slate, is very rich, three to four inches in width, some of it assaying $400 per ton in gold, and $44 in silver. An average of the south sixteen inches of the quartz vein proper assays $30 in gold and $2.80 in silver. At Cross-cut No. 3, the lode is nine to twelve feet wide in white and gray quartz, with thin seams of slate, all well charged with mineral, gray and yellow copper ore and iron pyrites. Average assays from rock blasted out range from $15 to $45 in gold, and $3 to $16.63 in silver, giving an average of $25.50 per ton for nine feet of the vein. At Cross-cut No. 4, 100 feet still farther west, the lode still holds its width; in fact, there are two lodes, separated by a horse of slate six feet wide, the northern portion of the vein being five feet wide, the south from ten to twelve feet. The quartz blasted out at this point is peculiar-a white variety, containing irregular patches of chlorite and serpentine from one-quarter to three-quarters inches across, and often running together, forming an irregular mass from one to one and one-half inches in size. Another variety is iron-stained and rose-colored, full of small cavities and seams of drusy quartz. The coarsest gold yet found occurs here. Assays of this rock give gold $78, silver $27.15. Several specimens have been found in which there is considerable free gold in crystal scales and strings, large enough to be plainly discernible to the unaided eye. Somewhat of white iron also occurs here, small scales of native copper and specular iron (black sand). The lode is evidently a fissure or contact fissure, its width, persistency, and, at times, banded and brecciaed character, all indicate it. At times, the first formed body of quartz seems to have been shattered and cracked, and subsequently filled in by silicious solutions. The metamorphic schist in which the lode occurs are principally magnesian. The foot-wall, a greenish gray talcochloritic slate, the hanging a soft steatitic, somewhat calciferous schist. South of these are heavy eruptive masses of serpentine, these in turn being flanked by the quartzite which overlie the iron ore beds; on the north the schists are in close contact with serpentine, diorite and granite. The work of exploring for the lode at points farther west is still progressing.

George Wagner and others secured an option for a lease of the bed of novaculite known to exist about three miles southwest of Marquette, in August, 1882, and proceeded to ascertain the quality as well as the quantity of the stone. If found of uniform merchantable quality and in workable quantity, works will be erected for its manipulation into the various shapes the market may require.

The Kloeckner Land Pool purchased 22,000 acres, covering thirty three miles, across the entire iron range of the Marquette and Menominee Districts, in June, 1882.


A. letter from the Assistant Commissioner of Mineral Statistics, dated at Marquette in September, 1881, furnished information concerning that portion of the State as follows: Miners receive per day of ten hours from $2 to $2.25. They work one week day-shift and one week nightshift, alternating. Miners working on contract make from $2.50 to $3.50 per day. Prices are about the same the year round. Furnace men get $2 to $2.25 per day; the founder, $1,500 to $1,800 per year. Surface laborers at the mines get $1.75 to $2 per day; laborers on the railroads, $1.80 per day; teams, $5 per day; farm hands, $1.50 to $1.75 per day, exclusive of board. Carpenters, painters, etc., receive $3 per day; masons, $4 per day; wood-choppers, $1 per cord. The demand for labor is good, fully equal to and rather in excess of the supply, especially for experienced miners. The board of single men costs them $18 per month. The cost of living is a quarter to a third more than in Lower Michigan. The wages in the copper regions average about the same as at Marquette. Upper Michigan must ever be a field which will require the labor of a large number of men at remunerative wages, varying, of course, with the demand for iron and copper, but the country is improving rapidly, and other fields than mining will require labor in the future to a much greater extent than has prevailed in the past.

To the toilers in the mining regions we may sincerely say, sink your pits, blast your mines, dam your rivers, consume your manufactures, disperse your commerce, and may your labors be in vein.

Popular belief has long considered this region a synonym for marvelous mineral wealth, and, long before that wealth was proved to have an existence, tradition and story had woven about the name a glamour of golden fancies which modern enterprise and modern energy have at last turned into solid facts. It has remained, however, for a later age and another race to bring to light this vast wealth, and send it forth to benefit mankind and enlarge and enrich the trade and commerce of the globe.

Nowhere on the continent is there such an extensive distribution of the metals. While in other mineral-bearing States and Territories the deposits are confined to certain well-defined limits; here, no such distinction prevails. It would appear as if nature had, in a prodigal mood, scattered her treasures with a lavish hand, and neglected no portion of her chosen mineral domain. In the richness and variety of its ores, it is also distinguished from the mining regions of the West. This predominating feature of the country was noted in an early period of its history. No mining State or Territory has yielded such masses of heavily weighted ore, and few have equaled the wonderful copper deposits of the country westward of this county.

There are portions of the county which offer good grazing and farming lands, but mining must be its main industry. Almost every range within its borders is seamed with veins of gold, silver and copper, as well as iron. The distance from supplies, the cost of freight and the want of proper reduction works prevented the proper development of this vast mineral wealth at the outset. The building of the railroads into the center of the mining region assured for this county a full share in the bright prospects of the State.

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