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Source: History of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan: containing a full account of its early settlement, its growth, development, and resources, an extended description of its iron and copper mines: also, accurate sketches of its counties, cities, towns, and villages ... biographical sketches, portraits of prominent men and early settlers. Publication Info: Chicago : Western Historical Co., 1883. Pages 452-464.


Negaunee 1883

Negaunee City is located in the heart of the Marquette Iron Range. Its population in 1881 was placed at 5,000. The religious societies are represented by the Catholic, Methodist and Protestant Episcopal: the press, by the Iron Herald, with C. G. Griffey, editor; music and the drama by an opera house; and education, by a commodious school. The city is reached by the Chicago & North-Western Railroad, and also by the M. H. & O. R. R. Its location is twelve miles west of Marquette, fifty-one east of L'Anse, and sixty-two northwest of Escanaba. The Pioneer Furnace is located there.

The first settlement made at Negaunee was by the Jackson Iron Company, who began mining on a small scale in the fall of 1846. In 1847, a forge was constructed on the Marquette road, about three miles east of Negaunee, the remains of which still exist. To that point the ore was

brought and manufactured into bloom (in 1854) for seven years, at the rate of three tons of iron per day. The hauling was done by teams, over the ten miles of terrific highway to the mouth of the Carp. The shipment of raw ore South and East did not begin until 1850.

The wagon road from Negaunee to the Carp was converted into a plank road, and subsequently rails laid for a horse railroad, on which mules were used as locomotives. A few years after the construction of this railroad, an engine was brought by boat to Marquette. This emblem of progress was hailed by the mule-drivers in anything but a friendly spirit; they protested against its landing on the iron land, and so demonstrative did they become that the lake Captain was compelled to resort to emphatic words and deeds to rid himself of this portion of the ship's cargo. He stood on the poop with revolver ready, and swore, as only a lake Captain can swear, that the first man who interfered with the "injine" would be shot in his tracks. The mule-drivers stood sullenly by and saw the dreaded labor-saving machine landed on their shores.

With the erection of the Pioneer Furnace in 1857, the advent of the Marquette & Bay de Noquet Railroad, the opening of the Sault Canal, all the iron interests sprang into importance, among the first of which was the Jackson Mine. In 1865, the demand for iron was brisk and regu lar, and to this period Negaunee must look back for the foundation of its present prosperous condition.

There was neither street nor regularly laid out village until the spring of 1865, when J. P. Pendill and the Pioneer Company caused two separate plats to be made. The plat of the former was called Iron, and that of the Pioneer Company, called after the Indian name, Negaunee. On these plats, together with a portion of the Jackson lands, the city of the present stands. This was the first move toward the prosperity of the city. Houses were moved, streets straightened and a round of improvements inaugurated. In the fall of 1865, the village was incorporated, a

town hall and a jail built at a cost of $10,000, and a large school building projected. In 1866, the Union Schoolhouse was erected, at a cost of $8,000. The Principals and Superintendents of the school were Messrs. Ketchum, Healy, McIntyre and Cochrane.

The following lines from a lengthy historical poem by "B," written in August, 1867, describes the village of that period:

But few of the houses six years have been seen,
The oldest, I'm told, is only sixteen,
They are fram'd cabin fashion, of course, all of wood,
Some made in six days, but all very good;
But I quake for their fate in case of a fire,
A hurricane, too, might blow them up higher.
A good fire engine would help to secure 'em,
And stone and good brick now you can procure 'em,
In case of a fire or high, windy weather,
Would help hold the village and houses together.
The houses are modest, some large and all roomy,
Well-lighted and painted and none of 'em gloomy;
Some are mere shanties built up with logs
And filled full of people and not a few dogs.
Few have a side front, but like a statue,
Stand out to the street as if they'd come at you.
There is a good schoolhouse cost eight thousand dollars,
And filled to repletion by three hundred scholars.
The Catholics already have built them a church,
And left all their brethren thus far in the lurch.

Situated in the heart of the iron district, the city felt most sensibly the crisis that affected the mines in operation around this vicinity. It required a large amount of perseverance on the part of the young business men who have stood by the town in the dark days of financial adversity, They are today reaping the reward which they so well deserve, to compensate them for years full of reverses and misfortunes.

The first indications of better times occurred some two years ago, since which time the changes have been so great that the town has been completely revolutionized, looking at it from a business standpoint. From being a town passed by by commercial men as dead, it is today overrun by representatives of trade from Chicago, Milwaukee, Detroit, Cleveland and Now York. The large hotel, the Breitung House, built with an eye to the future growth of the town, thought by many to be an elephant on the hands of the proprietor, is found to be too small to accommodate the travel of this season, so that he is contemplating large additions to the house as soon as possible, to meet the demands of the town for first-class hotel accommodations.

The season of 1882, so far, has been notable for the great number of visitors that stop on their passage to and from the resorts around the shores of Lake Superior. One great cause of attraction is the celebrated collection of specimens owned by G. A. Wettstein. This is probably the most extensive collection in America. Mr. Wettstein is an enthusiast on this subject. He has his agents out all the time making collections to keep up his vast emporium. People spend hours looking at the wonderful freaks of nature, classified, labeled and exposed to view in large glass cases. It matters not what is sought for in the mineral kingdom, it is to be found here in every stage of development, specimens of all sizes and shapes, from one grain in weight to tons, varying in price from 5 cents to hundreds of dollars.

It is the generally expressed opinion here that great good is experienced from the building of the D., M. & M. R. R. There are four brick blocks going up this season, besides general improvements in the appearance of the town.

The Negaunee Iron Herald, edited by C. G. Griffey, has outgrown its old quarters, and will occupy more commodious rooms in one of th new blocks when completed. Mr. Griffey is one of the men who helped to make the town, and he proposes to stand by it. Take all things into consideration, it would be a hard matter to find a town of like population that has better prospect for future growth, both as regards population and wealth, than Negaunee.

Negaunee Village was organized in 1862.

The first Presidents of the village were John Mulvey, John B. Maas, Henry Merry, William P. Healy and I. P. Pendill.

1866—John B. Maas, President; M. O'Neil, M. Kaufman, John Gilday, John Mulvey, W. P. Healy, John Hogan, Rich Gainy, A. Schenck, Trustees; M. Tobin, Clerk.

1867—James Matthews, President; J. W. Hutchenson, John Mulvey, M. Kaufman, J. Hogan, J. Muck, J. Gilday, Trustees; M. Tobin, Clerk.

1868—John Mulvey, President; H. Merry, Patrick Ready, John T. Downing, R. Rossiter, George Fick and John McKenna, Trustees; N. Laughlin, Clerk.

1869—Joseph Neurohr, William Heppe, John Milroy, Patrick Norton and R. Rossiter, Trustees; John Mulvey, President.

1870—John McKenna, William Heppe, Jacob Woesner, Medor Gaultier, E. C. Anthony and Timothy Ryan, Trustees; J. B. Maas. President; C. H. Hopkins, Clerk.

1871—John B. Maas, President; Chester Low, John Muck, R. Rositer, Dan Laughlin, Donald McDonald, John Schwartz, Trustee; N. Laughlin, Clerk.

1872—Henry Merry, President; John ,Mulvey, William Rowland, William C. McComber, H. E. Haydon, Daniel Laughlin, Michael Caples, Trustees; N. Laughlin, Clerk.

1873—Henry E. Haydon, President; Henry J. Collwell, Daniel Laughlin, Michael Caples, Trustees.

The first charter election of the city of Negaunee was held April 14, 1873, when James P. Pendill was elected Mayor; Nicholas Laughlin, Recorder; H. E. Haydon, Treasurer; John Mulvey, Assessor; James Brown, A. W. Naitland, Chester B. Low and William Hopkins, Justices; Hugh Norton and John Q. Adams, School Inspectors; H. O. Peck, M. O'Leary, G. Lobb, M. Tobin, Constables; William Rowland, John Mulvey and Henry Merry, Supervisors; John T. Downing, Joseph Engels, Timothy Donohue, Hugh Norton, John McKenna and H. J. Collwell, Aldermen. The principal officers elected since 1873 are named in the following list:

President—James P. Pendill, William P. Healy, 1874; Henry J. Collwell, 1875; John P. Mitchell, 1876; Phillip B. Kirkwood, 1877; T. J. Houston, 1878; Edward Breitung, 1879.

Recorder—N. Laughlin, 1877; Byron D. Jones, 1879-83.

Treasurer—E. C. Anthony, 1874-76; Norman McLeod; 1877; John P. Mitchell, 1878; Charles Muck, 1879-80; D. McDonald, 1881-83.

Mayor—Edward Breitung, 1880; George O. Houston, 1881; Edward Breitung, 1882-83.

Supervisors of Negaunee City—1873, William Rowland; 1873, John Mulvey; 1873, W. P. Healy; 1874, John Q. Adams; 1874, W. P. Healy; 1874, Nicholas Laughlin; 1875, Norman McLeod; 1875, William Rowland; 1875, Sam Collins; 1876, Donald McDonald; 1876, William Rowland; 1876, Charles Hanson; 1877, G. Jones; 1877, John Mulvey; 1877, C. G. Griffey; 1878, Robert Maxwell; 1878, James F. Foley; 1878, N. Hibbert; 1879-80, G. O. Hauston; 1879-80, John Mulvey; 1879-80, N. Hibbert; 1881, W. H. Sproul; 1881, Isaac Johnson; 1881, Nathaniel Hibbert; 1882, An. Der Jardin; 1882, M. E. Gaffney; 1882, Nathaniel Hibbert.


In 1867 (May 15), the Manufacturing and Mining News was issued, with A. P. Swineford, editor. The journal ceased publication August 15, 1868. The Negaunee Review was inaugurated July 28, 1870, with Messrs. Drake & McLaughlin, editors and proprietors. The paper continued to he published during two years.

The Negaunee Iron Herald was inaugurated in 1873, by C. G. Griffey, the first copy being issued November 10 that year. Since that time, Mr. Griffey has controlled and edited this journal. In October, 1882, the office was moved from the old Cyr building to the new brick block known as Neeley's; a power press was introduced, and the material of the office improved generally.

The Negaunee Church Visitor, published by Rev. P. R. Parrish, claimed a brief career, reaching its second number. It was considered a neat religious journal.

In 1874, the burning of the Pioneer Furnace created a local panic, which the city organization of the year previous could not remedy.


Isaac Johnston's mill at. Teal Lake-was established in 1881. This beautiful sheet of water lies within a short distance of the city. When Negaunee Township was first organized, it bore the name of this lake—Teal Lake Township.


The four public schools of the city, statistics of which are given in the general history of the county, are well conducted.


Negaunee Lodge, No. 202, A., F. & A. M., was instituted under a charter granted January 10, 1867, but worked under dispensation for a period of four months previous to this date. The lodge was organized by Deputy Grand Master M. H. Maynard, who was afterward Grand Master of the State. The installation services were attended by the Marquette Lodge, who came in a body, and the occasion was one of the memorable events of the times. The charter members were: Philip B. Kirkwood, Henry Stewart, William Sedgwick, L. D. Cyr, J. B. Maas, William Hop- kins, J. W. Ray, D. S. Harrington, Lewis Whitehead, Hon. Edward Breitung. The first officers were: P. B. Kirkwood, W. M.; H. Stewart, S. W.; William Sedgwick, J. W.; L. D. Cyr, M. D., Treasurer; and J. W. Ray, Secretary. The first meetings were held in a building erected by Mr. J. F. Pendill, which was occupied until 1870, at which date Mr. Edward C. Anthony erected his hall and placed it at the disposal of the order. This hall was used until 1878, when the lodge took up its present quarters, in the Mitchell building.

In 1868, upon the occasion of the installation of the officers of this lodge, at the close of the year, a banquet was given at the old Ogden House, in honor of the visiting guests from distant cities. Nearly every lodge of the Upper Peninsula were represented, and the affair was about the first social event occurring in the history of the city. The lodge is in fine working condition, enjoys a large member. ship, and has a well-furnished hall.

The present officers are : George Brewer, W. M.; Thomas M. Wells, S. W.; M. A. Gibbs, J. W.; L. A. Marsell, Treasurer; S. P. Kline, Secretary; G. Carmichael, S. D.; William Middlin, J. D.; Thomas Hams, Jr., Tiler.

Iron Mountain Lodge, No. 122, I. O. O. F., was founded at Negaunee September 22, 1868, with Norman McLeod, N. G.; Thomas Pajot, R. S. The charter members were Robert Hopkins, H. Kretchmer, John Haskins, T. Pajot, N. McLeod, And. Dutcher and John Oliver. This lodge has been carried down to the present time in a prosperous condition. The amount expended for benevolent purposes since its organization may be set down at $2,500. The number of present membership is seventy, with Charles Devonshire, N. G.; H. H. Heineman, V. G.; John Larson, R. S.; James Hanson, P. S.; John Sawbridge, Treasurer.

The Jackson Mutual Aid Society is another important organization. The officers of the society are: William Madiford, President; Charles Devonshire, Secretary; Frank A. Hendryx, Treasurer; Joseph Matthews, Steward for town; Pichard Thomas, Steward for mine.

The Negaunee T. of H. & T., No. 12, is presided ever by William Madiford, W. C. T., and John G. Parker, W. R.


The Protestant Episcopal Church.—The first service of this society known to be held in the Negaunee neighborhood was that by Mr. Reynolds, during his summer residence at the White House, on Teal Lake. He was accustomed to invite friends to his summer home on the Sabbath day and lead the service of his church. The first permanent pastor was Rev. George Wallace, in 1868 or 1869. In 1870, Rev. Robert Wood was appointed Rector. In the winter of 1872-73, Rev. Ed Seymour was appointed, and he was succeeded by Rev. J. Gordon Miller, who continued pastor until 1878, when Rev. E. C. Alborn took charge. Rev. Mr. Wood was re-appointed Rector in December, 1879, who still has charge.

The Union Church building and lot were purchased by this society from Henry Haydon for $2, 500, November 20, 1869. The new owners called the building St. John's Church, and have since continued to hold the Sabbath services therein. The principal Rectors of the church were Mr. Miller and the present pastor, Mr. Wood.

Among the original members of the society were Dr. McKenzie, George Atwater, William Sedgwick.

The communicants of this church number forty; the congregation numbers 200; and the number of Sunday school children ranges from seventy-five to 100. The present Warden is Dr. McKenzie. In 1879, the members of the vestry resigned, since which time such a body has not been elected.

The Methodist Episcopal Church.—The introduction of Methodism into the Negaunee district was made by Rev. William Benson, October 12, 1851, he having walked from the mouth of Carp River (Marquette) the day previous, and preached to the miners of the Jackson Company the Sabbath following. He visited the place occasionally until the summer of 1853. The first regular Methodist Episcopal preacher at Negaunee was Rev. A. A. Watkins. He was one of Prof. Winchell's men during the exploratory trip of 1864, who wished to remain in the wilderness. He received an appointment, and was pastor from 1865 to 1867. He died after leaving Negaunee, March 19, 1867. Rev. Eli Wygle succeeded Mr. Watkins. Under him the benevolent collections reached $110, and the library was increased to 500 volumes.

Rev. William Mahan, a native of Ireland and a man of sixty-five years at the date of his appointment in 1867, followed Mr. Wygle. Under him the first church record was purchased.

The first Board of Stewards comprised William Hopkins, Franklin Eddy, Stephen Vivian, Eugene Ketchum and John Tregando. At the close of 1868 he reported a membership of forty, with eleven on probation; a library containing 550 volumes, and a salary of $1,400. Mr. Mahan died at East Saginaw May 24, 1879. During his administration, the project of building a Methodist Episcopal Church was agitated, A sum of $2,000 or $3,000 was raised for the purpose, but a majority of the Trustees decided on a Union Church building, and so the original project failed, while the Union Church was raised at the corner of Main street and Teal Lake avenue. It was ready for holding worship in the fall of 1868. This building cost $3,000, and forms part of the property of the Union society, which was sold to the Protestant Episcopal society in 1869. Rev. Charles C. Yemans arrived September 21, 1868. He secured a donation of the site of the present Methodist Episcopal Church from the Iron Cliff Company, and, in December of 1868, superintended the foundation work of the new church building. In May, 1869, the frame was raised and battened, at a cost of $5,000. The building was dedicated November 21, 1869, by Rev. J. T. Hankinson, of Marquette. Rev. Mr. Yemans built the Methodist Episcopal Church and parsonage at Ishpeming in 1869-70, and had the church dedicated July 3, 1870, of which he became first pastor shortly afterward. Rev. Fred E. York arrived at Negaunee September 17, 1870. He discovered that the church owed about $2,000, and that there were in Negaunee 101 places in which liquor was sold. In 1871, Rev. J. M. Gordon was Presiding Elder of the Lake Superior District, and Elias Wetmore pastor at this place. The latter succeeded in getting the society to pay off all debts, and also to raise $1,000 toward the building of a parsonage, which cost $2,500.

Rev. J. M. Johnson came from Marquette in 1874. He found the society in debt to the amount of $2, 000 or $3,000. In 1875, Rev. Andrew Jackson Richards was appointed Presiding Elder of the Lake Superior District. In 1877, Rev. James E. Whalen was pastor. He purchased the claims against the society—$3,013.13—for $1,247. He then appealed to his flock, and they raised the latter, which he, as an individual, bound himself to pay.

In 1879, Rev John Russell was Presiding Elder, and Rev. Dutson W. Mesner, pastor. He was succeeded by Rev. P. Ross Parrish, now at Marquette, October 4, 1880. The same year, he inaugurated a local religious paper, called the Negaunee Church Visitor, which lived through two issues. The twelfth anniversary of the Negaunee Methodist Episcopal Church was observed June 11, 12 and 13, 1881. The present pastor is Rev. Lambert Edward Lennox.

The membership of the society in August, 1882, was eighty. The number of the congregation runs from 200 to 300.

The Sabbath school is presided over by John Clark, with Joseph Johns, Assistant Superintendent. The teachers are Arthur Delf, Elizabeth Delf, Mrs. Jennings,—Axby, Mrs. Roberts, Mrs. Jacka, D. Jacka,— Hendricks, Mary Niniss, Mrs. Matthews and Mrs. Johns.

Union Church.—In the fall of 1868, a Rev. Mr. St. Clair, a Presbyterian minister, held union service in the Town Hall. Shortly after the completion of the Union Church building, a Rev. Mr. Thorpe became pastor, but he only remained a few months. A. call was extended to Revs. Thomas and Morton, who failed to respond. Ultimately, the Union society obtained the services of Rev. Mr. Sargent as pastor, who remained until November 20, 1869, when the society was dissolved, and the property sold to the Protestant Episcopal Church society of Negaunee.

The Presbyterian Church of Negaunee was organized July 13, 1879. It is connected with the Presbytery of Lake Superior and with the Synod of Wisconsin. The first regular services of this church at Negaunee were held throughout the summer 1875 by Rev. J. E. Dulles, who was sent thither by the P. B. of H. M., at the suggestion of the Marquette Church. In the spring of 1879, Rev. H. E. Davis visited Negaunee, and continued to visit at intervals until May 15, when he was engaged by the B. of H. M. as permanent supply.

The new Presbyterian Church building is located at the corner of Pioneer avenue and Case street. The membership of the society numbers fifty-six, composed of twenty males and thirty-six females. The congregation comprises forty-five families, or from 150 to 200 persons.

Messrs. Hutchings, Ungerford, Spilman and Talcot, presumably Presbyterian ministers, were accustomed to superintend a Union Sunday school, and also conduct public worship. Both school and worship were held in a little schoolhouse. The Bible used was that presented in 1858 by Mrs. C. T. Harvey for use in these services.

Presbyterian Church Trustees, 1882: Joseph Kirkpatrick, Norman McLeod, V. J. Newman, J. E. Richardson, Robert Ewing; W. N. Morse, Secretary and Treasurer. Rev. H. E. Davis, the present pastor, is Superintendent of Sunday school; the number of Sunday school membership is about seventy.

The new church, with the lot on which it stands, will be valued at $8,000. The church is 60x36, stone foundation, brick veneer, with tower sixty feet high.

The Catholic Church.—The Church of St. Paul was established at Negaunee by Rev. Honoratus Bourion in 1861. Among the congregation were J. B. Maas, John Mulvey, M. O'Neil, N. Lonstorf, A. Barabe, Medor Gaultier and Thomas MeKenny. The first church was built near to the Jackson Mine, This building is now used as a dwelling house. Father Bourion remained until August, 1871, when the present Bishop of the diocese was appointed priest. Within the first decade the present large church at St. Paul's was built, under the direction of Father Bourion. The corner stone was laid November 10, 1867, by Bishop Baraga, and the building consecrated in 1870. The cost of the building was about $30,000. The old parochial house was built by Rev. J. B. Vertin in 1873, at a cost of $5,000. Rev. Mr. Vertin was the officiating priest of St. Paul's until his consecration as Bishop of Marquette. Rev. Frederick Eis was appointed priest in November, 1880. Under him all debts remaining due by the church were paid, a new parochial brick house built at a cost of $4,000, and schoolhouse, also of brick, erected at a cost of $5,000. On these new buildings a small debt was incurred. The Catholics of St. Paul's number 350 families, or about eighteen hundred. The number of children of school age belonging to the church is about five hundred.

St. Paul's School was built in 1882, at a cost of $5,000, under the direction of Father Eis. The building is brick, 30x60, two stories in height, and contains four large schoolrooms. The schools were opened in 1882, with the Sisters of St. Joseph in charge.


This new and promising manufacturing industry of the iron region has been described by Mr. A. P. Swineford in his work on the Iron Mining Industry for 1882. In concluding that valuable little book, he says: "A review of the iron mining industry would be incomplete without more than a mere passing notice of the Negaunee Concentrating Company's new works, now just being completed. These works, designed for the treatment, by crushing and washing, of the lean ores of the district, are located a short distance north of the Chicago & North-Western Railway, where it passes the Jackson Mine, and consist at present of a boiler house, engine house, and the concentrating house proper. The latter is an immense building, very substantially built, and resting against the south side of the bluff, on the opposite side of which lie Teal Lake and the Cambria and Bessemer Mines. This building is seven stories in height, four of which are in the side of the bluff, while the other three tower above it. It is simply a vast network of heavy timbers, the whole covered with a roof of corrugated iron; it slopes upward to the north at an angle of about fifteen degrees from the perpendicular, and each story has, apparently, a separate roof, the roofs presenting the appearance of terraces. Only half the main building, as originally projected, is finished; the other half will be erected after the machinery in the part already up is put into successful operation. When fully completed, it will be 1833 feet long; 1161 feet wide and 113 feet high. Large tanks, from which pipes lead to all parts of the building, and 200 buckets filled with salt water, afford ample protection against fire. The water to be used in washing the ore is obtained from pipes laid from Teal Lake to the works. A massive engine of 600-horse power, the steam for which is supplied by three 6x18 boilers, furnishes the power for the operation of the vast network of machinery. The company has a contract which permits it to mine all the lean ores it may elect on the Jackson Mine location, and has a mile and a quarter of railway track laid to facilitate its operations. Over two hundred men are now employed at and around the works, but these are only a fraction of the force that will be necessary when operations are fully inaugurated.

"The works were to have been started up the second week in July, and iron men generally are much interested over the result of the experiment—for experiment it really is, notwithstanding such works have proved successful elsewhere. In this expression we but voice the opinion of the management, which finds the ores of this region somewhat different from those heretofore treated by concentration, in that they are not a simple mixture of ore and rock, easily separated from each other, but lean ores carrying a large percentage of silica. Whether this silica can be eradicated to an extent sufficient to concentrate the ore up to the standard of first-class is the problem soon to be solved, and upon the solution of which, in a great measure, depends the permanent success of the enterprise. As we have before remarked, however, the company must have large faith, or it would hardly have ventured upon the expenditure of several hundred thousand dollars in the erection of works on such an extensive scale. The process is a patented one, with which none but the owners are familiar, and it is in deference to the wishes of the management that we await the result of operations before attempting a description either of the process or of the complicated machinery by which it is wrought. The works are in charge of the following officers:

"General Manager, G. Conklin; Superintendent, W. A. Allen; Master Mechanic, F. W. Gercke."

The summer season of 1882 has seen more real improvement in Negaunee, in the matter of new business blocks and residences, than during any like period of time in its past history. The universal prosperity of the citizens is displayed in many ways, but in none is this manifestation so much to their credit and to the glory of the city of their choice as in the erection of business blocks and residences, that are put up in a manner both substantial and of a higher grade of architectural finish than may be ordinarily seen in cities of several times its size. From the Chicago & North-Western track west on Iron street, a number of new buildings have been most generously sprinkled this season, and, when all in this part of the city now in process of erection shall have been turned over to their owners, this portion of the principal street will: present an appearance of attractive solidity that the entire city may look upon with pride. East of this track, the work of improvement has not been so marked, yet the demand for better buildings is far more imperative, and enterprising citizens in this neighborhood will not stand another season of prosperity without making it tell on the city by the tearing down of some of the dilapidated eyesores, and erecting in their stead business blocks to comport with the new order of things.

One more season's building like the present will put Negaunee to the front with other Lake Superior cities in the matter of neat and commodious business blocks.


JOHN Q. ADAMS, attorney at law, is a son of Samuel and Lorilla Adams, and was born in Cornwall, Litchfield County, Conn., November 2, 1837. He was reared and attended school there, and when eighteen years of age, entered a drug store in West Cornwall as clerk, and remained there three years; on account of ill health he was obliged to leave the store and return to the farm. In February, 1863, he entered the law office of Mr. George Wheaton, and began reading law, pursuing his studies with him for two years, and was admitted to the bar in Litchfield, Conn., in 1865, and during that time maintained himself and his family by his own exertions. After his admission to the bar he became the partner of Mr. Wheaton, and remained until the death of the latter; during the same year Mr. Adams succeded to his practice, and continued in the practice of his profession until the spring of 1872, when he came to Lake Superior and located at Negaunee, engaging in the practice of law. In 1874, he was elected Circuit Court Commissioner for two years. In 1876, he was elected Prosecuting Attorney of Marquette County, and in 1878 was re-elected; in 1880, was again re—elected to the same office, which he has held for the past six years. In September, 1879, he associated with him James Foley for the purpose of mining. The firm of Adams & Foley soon after discovered the Hematite Mine now known as the Milwaukee Mine, situated on the south Negaunee Iron Range. This mine was sold in 1881, for $100,000. During the same years, Messrs. Adams and Foley purchased the New York Hematite Mine, which they still own and are successfully operating. Mr. Adams is identified with several other mining interests, some of which are very promising. He is prominently identified with the Masonic order, and is a member of the following orders : Negaunee Lodge, No. 202, F. & A. M.; Marquette Chapter, No. 43, R. A. M.; Lake Superior Commandery, No. 30, K. T.; Moriah Lodge of Perfection, fourteen degrees, Grand Rapids, Mich.; Cyrus Counsel of Prince of Jerusalem, sixteen degrees, Grand Rapids; Robinson Chapter, Rosecroix, eighteen degrees, Grand Rapids; DeWitt Clinton Consistory, thirty-two degrees, Grand Rapids. In 1858, Mr. Adams was married to Miss Sophronia A. Owen, of Sharon, Conn. They have one son—Eugene W. Adams, born September 9, 1867.

WALTER A. ALLEN, Superintendent of the Negaunee Concentrating Works, is a native of New York State; he grew up and received his education there and studied civil engineering. His first practical experience was with Gen. Fremont on his survey through California and Arizona. He has held the position of Constructing Engineer in the erection of gas works, and has had a large and successful experience in various contracting and mining enterprises. He accepted his present responsible position early in the present year, and has entire charge of the construction of the extensive buildings of the Concentrating Company, being the heaviest building of wood erected in the United States.

EDWARD C. ANTHONY, of the Negaunee Glucodine Works, and proprietor of harness shop, was born in England January 8, 1840; he is the son of Thomas and Rebecca Anthony. He was apprenticed to the trade of harness -making, served three years, and then came to America in ,1857, and located at Marquette, Mich. He carried on a harness shop a short time, and then engaged in railroading. He enlisted in July, 1861, in the First Michigan Cavalry, Company B; he was taken prisoner at the second battle of Winchester, and was confined at Lynchburg and Belle Isle prisons; he served three years, or the term of his enlistment. On his return from the army, he opened a harness shop at Negaunee November, 1864, which was the first harness shop above Marquette on the Peninsula; he has continued to carry on the business to this date, 1882. In the spring of 1882, he associated himself with A. D. Parker, of New York, in the manufacture of giant powder, in Marquette County, under the title of the Negaunee Glucodine Works; they employ four men at present, and manufacture $2,800 worth of powder per week. They first manufacture glycerine, and next giant powder, which is from thirty to fifty per cent nitro glycerine. Mr. Anthony has been chosen to serve in various official capacities. He has served as Township Treasurer of Negaunee five years, City Treasurer, three years, Superintendent of the Poor, fourteen years, being the present incumbent; he has served as Chairman four years, and is now serving his fifth term. He is the present Chief of the fire department and has served in that capacity seven years and has been a member of the board of education six years. He was married at Marquette, Mich., September 21, 1865, to Miss Dorretta Bey, daughter of Charles F. Bey. Mrs. Anthony was born in New York City; they have three children —Harriett R., Frederick C. and May.

HENRY M. ATKINSON, sole proprietor of the Laxy Iron Mine, situated in Section 28, Cascade Range, town of Negaunee. This is a new mine, discovered by Mr. Atkinson, and has been worked only about a year. He is also proprietor of a livery, sale and boarding stable at Negaunee, which business was established in 1879. The subject of this sketch was born in Ireland, in March, 1854; he is the son of Stephen and Ellen Atkinson. He came to America with his parents in 1862, and made his home in Fort Howard, Wis.; lived there eight years and then moved to Negaunee, Mich., 1870, and engaged in the importation of live stock; followed this business till 1879, when he engaged in the livery business. He was married at Negaunee, April 16, 1879, to Miss Maggie L. Brown, daughter of Henry Brown. Mrs. Atkinson was born at Escanaba, Mich. Mr. Atkinson has served as Alderman of the Second Ward two years.

JOSEPH ATKINSON, foreman carpenter shop, Iron Cliff Company, is a native of England, and was born in the city of London December 12, 1822; came to this country in 1844; went South and lived there some years, then came to Lake Superior and lived in Superior City three years, in Ontonagon three years, and in Houghton and Hancock ten years; he came to Negaunee in 1869. For the past three years he has been connected with the Iron Cliff Company. He built the first saw mill, at Superior City, erected on the Upper Peninsula. He married Miss Margaret Arnott, a native of Cumberland, England, October 19. 1845; they have four children—Margaret, Mary, Emma, and Edward.

CAPT. GEORGE BARRINGER, manager of mines, was born in Germany May 24, 1827, and emigrated to America in 1860; two years later, in 1862, came to Lake Superior and took the position of foreman at the Cleveland Mine; then for three years worked the School House Mine on contract; he ran a tunnel in the Jackson Mine, the first one opened here. He held the position of Superintendent of the Parsons Mine for twelve years, and also leased the Rolling Mill Mine for three years; he is now exploring for mineral. He married Miss Elizabeth Erbeldig, a native of Germany, June 16, 1849. She died April 21, 1882, leaving three children, Elizabeth, Kate and John R.

THOMAS S. BATES, Engineer of the Negaunee Fire Department. He was appointed to his present position March 1, 1880. Mr. Bates was born in Detroit, Mich., June 2, 1837. He was brought up in Detroit, and at the age of fifteen years began learning the trade of machinist, served three years; he then worked as a journeyman machinist some years, and then went to Chicago where he worked at his trade awhile, and then went to Green Bay, Wis. From the latter place he moved to Marquette, Mich. He spent three years in the Upper Peninsula, a portion of which time was passed in the copper regions. He then returned to Detroit, where he was employed three years in the shops of the. Detroit & Milwaukee Railroad. Toward the close of the war, he went South and was in the service of the Government some time; he then went to Romeo, N. Y., where he was in business for himself as a machinist two years. In 1871, he returned to Marquette, and was employed as chief engineer of the Champion Mines near that place one year; he next went to Quincy, Ill., and one year later to Chicago. In March, 1881, he accepted the appointment of engineer of the new fire engine at Negaunee, and located at that place, which position he now holds. Mr. Bates was married at Marquette, Mich.. June 28, 1859, to Miss Angeline Bey, daughter of Frederick Bey. Mrs. Bates was born in the city of New York; they have seven children—Harry C., Charlotte, Edward, Fanny, Sidney, Frederick and Daisy.

JOHN BEST, contractor, Jackson Mine, was born in Canada March 16, 1840; came to Marquette County in 1862; began work with the Jackson Mine, and, for the past twenty years, has worked for that company; has been pit foreman; is now taking out ore by contract. He married Florence Pellier, a native of Scotland, June 25, 1872. They have four children—John, Mary, Duncan, and one son, William, by a former wife.

ALEXANDER BINGLEY is a native of Canada, and was born May 15, 1828; he came to the States when only sixteen years of age; he came to Chicago in 1850, and, for many years, was engaged in contracting and building; he erected many buildings that were prominent before the fire of 1871; he took an active interest in politics, and was elected and served as member of the City Council, and was well acquainted with the early settlers. He came to Negaunee in 1872, and engaged in mercantile business for three years; then became largely interested in mining; he, together with Patterson & McComber, discovered ore on the site of the Bessemer Mine, and, in 1876, the Bessemer Company was organized, and he was elected President of the company; it is now one of the best hematite mines in the country; he is also largely interested in mining in Colorado. In 1854, Mr. Bingley married Miss Ellen C. Carey, a native of Canada. They have two children—Aurelia and George.

EDWARD BLAKE, book-keeper, Jackson Mine, is a native of the State of Indiana, and was born December 25, 1849; he grew up and received his education in that State. In 1873, he came to Negaunee, and, since then, has held his present position in connection with the management of the Jackson Mining Company. He is actively identified with educational interests, and, for the past six years, has served as School Trustee. Mr. Blake was united in marriage to Miss Ella F. Snow, of Greenfield, Mass., September 17, 1876. They have three childrenNewell S., Mary and Cora Edna.

ABRAHAM BOULSOM, merchant tailor, is a native of Finland, and was born May 10, 1843; grew up and learned his trade there; emigrated to this country in 1873, and came to Lake Superior, located at Hancock and worked at his trade there until 1878, when he came to Negaunee, and worked at his trade four years, and then established his present business, and has carried it on since, and has built up a good trade. Mr. Boulsom married Miss Maggie Elfbrant, a native of Finland, May 25, 1871. They have three childrenAlbert, Mary and Lizzie.

JOHN BRAY, pit foreman, Jackson Mine, was born in Cornwall, Eng., January 28, 1855; emigrated to this country in May, 1874; came to Negaunee the same year, and began work in Pioneer Mine, and, since the first year, has worked for the Jackson Company, and is now pit foreman. He married Miss Ann Selma Brown, a native of Cornwall, Eng., August 24, 1876. They have three childrenJohn, Anna and Eliza.

EDWARD BREITUNG, capitalist, is a native of Germany, and was born in the Duchy of Saxe Meiningen November 10, 1831. After going through his preparatory course, he entered college and graduated in 1849 After completing his education, and during the same year, he emigrated to this country; came to this State and located at Kalamazoo; two years later, he went to Detroit and lived there four years. In May, 1855, he came to Lake Superior, and located at Marquette and engaged in mercantile business. Soon after this, he began exploring, and buying an selling mineral lands; he remained there until 1859, when he came to Negaunee, and engaged in mercantile business here, and also associated with Israel B. Case, and they ran the Pioneer Furnace under contract. In 1864, he sold out his mercantile business, and gave his entire attention to mining and mining interests. During the winter of 1864-65, he began to open the Washington Mine, and, in 1870, he began to open the Negaunee hematite range. No one believed he would find merchantable ore, and all thought the venture a foolish one; but he had confidence in his own judgment, and future developments have fully proved that his judgment was correct. In the fall of 1871, he began to open the famous Republic Mine, the largest and most profitable iron mine in this country, if not in the world. In 1863, he began explorations on the Menominee Range, and continued for three years. Here no one believed he would find ore; he insisted that it was there and that he would find it, and he did. The immense amount of ore taken out of the mines on this range, fully justifies the faith he had in this section of the mining region. He has lately become interested in the Vermillion Iron Range in Minnesota. Mr. Breitung was one of the pioneers in the mining interests here. He had nothing but ability, enterprise and determination when he began life, but by the constant exercise of these qualifications, coupled with the great good judgment which has characterized all his operations, he has become the most prominent and successful dealer and producer in iron and mineral lands in the Lake Superior iron region. In the fall of 1872, Mr. B. was elected to the State Legislature from Marquette County. In 1876, he was elected to the State Senate from this Senatorial District, representing the counties of Marquette, Delta. Menominee, Baraga, Schoolcraft, Chippewa and Mackinac. He is serving his third term as Mayor of this city. Mr. B. is noted for his liberality, and his readiness to aid every worthy object is proverbial. His heart and purse are ever open to the appeals of the needy and unfortunate. Mr. B. was united in marriage, November 28, 1870, to Miss Mary Pauline, from Port Washington, Wis. They have one sonEdward N., a bright, manly boy. He was born November 1, 1871. They lost one son—William M., in infancy.

Mr. and Mrs. Edward Breitung 

GEORGE BREWER, Captain South Jackson Mine, was born in Cornwall, Eng., July 23, 1842; emigrated to America in 1865; came to Marquette County in 1868, and engaged in mining at the Lake Superior Mine; was there and at the Pioneer Mine five years. For the past nine years he has been with the Jackson Company, and holds the position of Captain of the South Jackson Mine. In 1864, he married Miss Mary Ann Daw, of England; she died March 14, 1873, and left one sonFred. Mr. B. married Miss Elizabeth Mary Smith, a native of Cornwall, Eng., May 21, 1874. They have five children—Albert G., Lorenzo J. S., Luther C. S., Roscoe V. and Ethelinda M. J.

W. H. BROWN, foreman blacksmith shop, Jackson Mine, was born in Cornwall, Eng., April 25, 1844; emigrated to America in 1865; came to Marquette County in 1868; worked at Morgan Furnace; came to Negaunee in 1869; was foreman at the Jackson Mine four years, and now is foreman of the blacksmith shop. He married Miss Mary Moorebale October 24, 1870. She is a native of Devonshire, Eng. They have two children—Harry and Bessie.

RICHARD BRYANT, mining captain Pendill Mine, was born in Cornwall, Eng., November 2, 1846; he came to America in 1864, and came to Marquette County in 1876, and since then has been engaged in mining for the past three years; has been with the Pendill Mine for two years as captain. He married Miss Winniefred Hugo, from Cornwall, Eng., October 29,1871. They have four children—Thomas, Richard, Winniefred and William John. They have lost one daughter, Catherine Ann.

CHARLES COCK, Captain McComber Mine, was born in Cornwall, England, October 14, 1844; emigrated to America in 1866; two years later, he came to Marquette County and began working in the Jackson Mine; remained there thirteen years; has had charge of the principal pits in that mine; was appointed Captain at McComber Mine March, 1882; he married Miss Mary Jane Snell August 17, 1867. She is a native of Cornwall, England. They have one daughterElizabeth Jane Snell.

LEWIS CORBIT, outside foreman Iron Cliff Furnace, is a native of Bennington County, Vt., and was born March 17, 1840. When fifteen years of age, he went to Connecticut, and lived there and in New York State until 1874, when he came to Negaunee, and entered the employ of the Iron Cliff Company, and since then, for the past eight years. has held his present position; he was united in marriage to Miss Maria Sterling, from Ohio.

DR. L. D. CYR, physician and surgeon, is a native of Canada, and was born December 25, 1833; he grew up and received his education there; studied medicine and graduated in Montreal in 1856. Two years later, in 1858, he came to Lake Superior, and engaged in practice of medicine, and since then, for the past twenty-four years, he has successfully practiced his profession here. In 1859, he started a drug store, and has carried on that business for twenty-three years, and is the oldest merchant in Negaunee; he held the office of Postmaster for many years. Dr. Cyr married Miss Florence Watson, of Marquette. They have three children—Florence, Philemon and Louise.

DR. H. W. DAVIS, physician and surgeon, is a native of Oshkosh, Wis., and was born April 14, 1857; he grew up and received his education in that State; he studied medicine and graduated at Rush Medical College, Chicago, in winter 1879-80. After graduating, he engaged in the practice of medicine at Oshkosh until May, 1881, when he came to Ishpeming and associated with Dr. Cyr, and since then has successfully practiced his profession here.

E. A. DAMS, foreman machine shop Jackson Mine, is a native of New York State, and was born in Dutchess County September 28, 1842; he grew up and learned his trade in that State, and came to Negaunee in 1877 to enter the employ of the Iron Cliffs Company, and since then has held his present position of foreman of the machine shop. He married Miss Emma Powers, a native of Dutchess County, N. Y., April 12, 1870; they have five children—Edna, Eddie, Ella, Carrie and Frank.

A. DES JARDINS, physician and surgeon, is a native of Canada, and was born in Montreal December 1, 1855; he grew up and pursued his literary studies there. and came to Michigan in 1873; studied medicine; entered the University of Michigan and graduated from that institution in 1877. After graduating, he located at Ishpeming and practiced there two years; then located in Negaunee, and since then has successfully practiced his profession here. Dr. Des Jardins was united in marriage February 13, 1879, to Miss Eva Bibeau, a native of Massachusetts. They have one daughterEva C.

REV. FREDERICK EIS, rector of St. Paul's Catholic Church, is a native of Germany, and was born January 20,1843. His parents. emigrated to this country in 1855, and located in Wisconsin; he received his primary education in Germany. In this country, he attended the seminary in Milwaukee, and completed his theological studies in Canada, and was ordained priest in Marquette in October, 1870; he served as pastor of the Cathedral of that city for three years; served as pastor in Calumet one year, and in Hancock for six years; came to his present pastorate in November, 1880. Since coming here, through his efforts, the balance of the church debt has been paid and a parsonage and a school built. The church and parish are in a prosperous condition. About four hundred children attend the new St. Paul's School.

Rev. Frederic Eis

JAMES F. FOLEY, capitalist, is a native of Schuylkill County, Penn., and was born in Pottsville May 8, 1830. After reaching manhood, he came to Lake Superior in 1850, and engaged in mining at Ontonagon, and worked there and at Eagle Harbor for five years; then went to Minnesota, where he engaged in farming for eight years, when he returned to Houghton, and spent two years; then came to Marquette County and engaged in iron mining; he has charge of five mining properties-the Milwaukee, the Chicago, the New York Hematite (of which he is half-owner), the Baraga and part of the Manganese property. Three years ago, he discovered the Milwaukee Mine, and sold it to the Milwaukee Iron Company for $100,000; he has recently discovered a very valuable quality of hard ore on the New York Hematite Mine, east of the Jackson Mine, and thought to be one of the most important discoveries made in this region for a long time. Mr. Foley is one of the oldest settlers in the mining region, and there are few men who have been more active and who have become, through their own efforts, more successful; he has held the office of Assessor two years, and served as Foreman of the Fire Department five years. He married Miss Margaret Finnegan, a native of Ireland, February 11, 1854. They have three children David, Prior John and Mary Ann. They lost two sons in infancy.

CHRISTOF FOX, of the firm of Sporley & Fox, manufacturers of harness and dealers in trunks, was born in Austria August 31, 1850; he emigrated to America in 1868. The following year he came to Michigan; was in Menominee two years, and came to Negaunee in 1872; worked at his trade until 1874, and then established his present business, and has built up a good trade; he married Miss Gretchen Haas, from Houghton, Mich., August 31, 1880. They have had one son—Haroldwho died in infancy.

LUZERNE FROST, book-keeper, was born in Portage County, Ohio, December 7, 1829. After reaching manhood, he came West to Wisconsin in 1854, and located at Hartford, Washington County. While there, he held the office of Postmaster six years. During the war, he was Deputy Collector of Internal Revenue, and served as Deputy Provost Marshal during the draft; he came to Negaunee in 1871, and since then has been engaged in keeping books most of the time; he was Deputy City Treasurer two terms, and is a member of the Masonic order; he married Miss Amelia Gregory, from Portage County, Ohio, September 7, 1848. They have a son—Charles M.and a daughterJosie H., now Mrs. Slaughter, of Escanaba.

J. M. GANNON, in charge of the telegraph office of the Chicago & North-Western Railway Company, was born near Poughkeepsie, N. Y., August 1, 1850; his parents came to Illinois during his early boyhood; he attended school there, and in 1869 entered the employ of the Chicago & North-Western Railway, and has been connected with the company for the past thirteen years; he came to Negaunee in 1875, and since then has had charge of their telegraph office here. He was united in marriage October 12, 1875, to Miss Lida Thurston, a native of New York State.

MAHLON A. GIBBS, cashier Iron Cliff Company, is a native of Salisbury, Conn., and was born July 18, 1849; he grew up and received his education in that State; he came to Negaunee at the request of Hon. W. H. Barnum, president of the above company, in 1873; he held the position of book-keeper for two years, and since then, for the past seven years, has occupied his present responsible position; he is also secretary and cashier of the Cambria Mining Company. Mr. Gibbs was united in marriage August 5, 1880, to Miss Myra S., only daughter of V. J. Newman, of this place. They have one daughterLola Adell.

CORNELIUS GORMAN, proprietor of livery, sale and boarding stable. This business was established in 1873 by Sweeney & Gorman, which connection was continued till November, 1881, when Mr. Sweeney sold out to Mr. Gorman. The subject of this sketch was born in Ireland in 1846; he is the son of John Gorman. In 1852, he came to America with his parents, and lived in Clinton County, N. Y., till 1866, when he moved to Hancock, Mich.; he worked at mining three years, and then came to Ishpeming, where he was engaged as contractor in the mines till 1873; he then came to Negaunee and engaged in the livery business; he was married in Negaunee, in 1873, to Miss May Sweeney, daughter of Dennis Sweeney. Mrs. Gorman was born at Franklin Falls, Clinton Co., N. Y. They have four children—Katie, John, Edward and Mary. Mr. Gorman is interested in a large tract of land in the "range."

E. S. GREEN, manager of the store of the Iron Cliff Company, is a native of Connecticut, and was born August 1, 1834; he grew up and received his education in New England; came West to Lake Superior, and located in Negaunee in 1866, for the purpose of taking charge of the store for the Iron Cliff Company, and since then, for the past sixteen years, he has occupied that position. The company have a large trade, and under the successful management of Mr. Green their sales average $150,000 yearly, and they have sold as high as $240,000 in one year. There are only two men engaged in the business here now that were in the business when he came. Mr. Green was united in marriage, January 1, 1857, to Miss Mary J. Roraback, from Connecticut. They have two children, both daughters—Lucy and Minnie.

C. G. GRIFFEY, Postmaster and publisher of the Iron Herald, is a native of Erie County, Penn., and was born September 2, 1846; he grew up and received his education mainly in that State and in Ashtabula County, Ohio; entered a printing office in Conneaut, Ohio, where he learned the trade of printer. He came up to Lake Superior in the fall of 1873 and established the Iron Herald, and since then, for the past nine years, has published that paper here. In the winter of 1878 and 1879, he represented the First District of Marquette County in the State Legislature; was elected and served as member of the County Board one year. In February, 1881, he was appointed Postmaster, and now holds that office. Mr. Griffey was united in marriage, April 30, 1862, to Miss Fannie M. Palmer, from Girard, Penn. They have one son—Charles H.and one daughterMollie.

THOMAS HARRIS, JR., grocer, was born in Cornwall, England, September 30, 1856; he is the son of Thomas and Emma Harris; he came to America with his parents in 1863, and settled at Houghton, Mich.; lived there four years, and then moved to Negaunee (1867). In the fall of 1878, he went to Ishpeming and started in the grocery business, which he continued fourteen months, and then returned to Negaunee. In September, 1881, he opened in the same line at this place; he carries a full stock of staple and fancy groceries and provisions; he also has a restaurant, where he dispenses soda water, ice cream and temperance drinks in season; he was married, February 4, 1880, in Ishpeming, to Miss Minnie Quinn, daughter of Henry Quinn. Mrs. Harris was born in Canada.

JOHN T. HAYS, manager of the Wheat Mining Company, is from Canton, Ohio, and was born October 19, 1852. He grew up there. After reaching manhood, he held the office of Deputy Sheriff for two years, and in 1876 was elected Clerk of the Court of his county; held that office for six years. During his term of office, he issued the death warrants for the execution of three men. Since coming to Michigan he has given his attention to the development of mines in which he is interested; he is general manager of the Wheat Mine, comprising 160 acres of land. Over nine hundred thousand tons of ore were taken out of this mine in 1881. Mr. Hays was united in marriage, September 2, 1879, to Miss Mary C. McCrea, a native of Columbiana, Ohio.

FRANK A. HENDRYX, foreman machine shop Jackson Mine, is a native of Ohio, and was born in the city of Cleveland August 6, 1848; he grew up and learned his trade there; came to Michigan in 1873; has been with the Jackson Company since 1876, and for the past five years has held his present position; he holds the office of School Inspector; he married Miss Annie Hurlbut, from the city of Cleveland, October 18, 1870.

NATHANIEL HIBBERT, Captain Iron Cliff Mine, is a native of Lancashire, England, and was born December 12, 1843. He came to America in 1866; spent two years in Illinois, and in 1868 came to Negaunee, and began to work in the Jackson Mine; remained there until 1877, when he accepted a place with the Iron Cliff. Company, and since then has held his present position with that Company; he has held the office of Supervisor of the Third Ward for the past four years, and was again re-elected at the recent election. Mr. Hibbert was united in marriage, June 13, 1871, to Miss Mary A. Sawbridge, a native of North Hampton, England. They have two children—Sarah A. and Edward.

TITUS T. HIBBERT, engineer of the Jackson Mine, is a native of England, and was born in the town of Hyde, county of Chester, June 14, 1847. After reaching manhood, he came to this country, and located in Negaunee in 1869, and entered the employ of the Jackson Mining Company, and has been with that company for the past twelve years, with the exception of a few months. For the past six years, he has been connected with the machinery department, and has had charge of the Root engine house; he has held the office of School Inspector for the past two years, and at the recent election was re-elected to the same position. Mr. Hibbard was united in marriage, August 6, 1873 to Miss Emma Sawbridge, a native of Northampton, England. They have three children—Joseph, Mabel, Alice.

GEORGE O. HOUSTIN, with the Negaunee Concentrating Works, is a native of Lancaster County, Penn., and was born January 29, 1846; he grew up to manhood there and in New York State; came to Marquette County in 1875, and was with the Iron Cliff Company one year; then was connected with the Miners' Powder Company in the manufacture of high explosivesfor some years; he was elected Mayor of Negaunee in 1881, and held that office one year; he also held the office of Supervisor for three terms; became connected with the Concentrating Works during the present year. Mr. Houstin was united in marriage, December 14, 1870, to Miss Julia M. Paine, a native of Dutchess County, N. Y. They have one daughter—Julia Bessie.

EDWARD JAMES, surface boss New York Mine, is a native of Canada, and was born December 9, 1848; he came to Lake Superior, to the copper country, in 1861, and worked there until 1870; then came here and since then has worked in the New York Mine. Since 1872, he has been pit foreman and contractor, and is now surface boss; he married Miss Mary Ann Scanlon, from Canada, September 8, 1878. They have two childrenJohn and Eliza.

JOSEPH H. JOHNS, foreman at McComber Mine, is a native of Cornwall, England, and was born September 7, 185 Upon reaching manhood, he emigrated to America, in 1879, and the following year came to Negaunee, and worked in the Pendill Mine until this year, when he was appointed foreman at the McComber Mine; he holds the position of Superintendent of Sabbath School of the M. E. Church.

CHRISTIAN JOHNSON, saloon, was born in Denmark September 30, 1839; he emigrated to America in 1868, and the following year came to Lake Superior, and for the past five years has lived in Negaunee; he married Miss Mary Johnson—a native of Denmark.

ISAAC JOHNSON, merchant, manufacturer of and dealer in lumber; mill and yards situated on the lake within the city limits; he also deals in sash, doors and blinds, and is a contractor and builder. The subject of this sketch was born in Sweden April 4, 1837; he is the son of John O. and Breta Johnson; he came to America in 1852; and located at Escanaba. In 1869, he built a sawmill at Little Lake, Marquette County, which he let under contract for six years; he then ran it himself. In August, 1881, he moved it to Negaunee and rebuilt it. The mill is run by steam power, and has a working capacity of 25,000 feet of lumber per day. Mr. Johnson gives employment to about forty men; he has run his store since the fall of 1881; he carries a general stock of groceries and provisions, dry goods, clothing, boots and shoes; he was married, June 28, 1868, at Escanaba, to Miss Catharine Peterson, daughter of Lars Peterson. Mrs. Johnson was born in Sweden. They have five children—Lotta, Albert, Andrew, Sandy and Walter. Mr. Johnson is one of the live business men of Marquette County; he has had but little time to devote to public matters; he reluctantly served one and one-half years as Alderman from the Second Ward, and one year as Supervisor.

JOHN JOHNSON, City Marshal, was born in Denmark January 16, 1847, and emigrated to America in 1865, and the following year came to Marquette County and began work in sawmill; and since then, with the exception of one year, he has worked in a sawmill; worked in the Johnson Mill twelve years; he has served as Township Highway Commissioner, and was elected City Marshal in May, 1882; he married Miss Mary Nelson, a native of Denmark, April 15, 1871. They have six sons—August P., James, William, John, Christian C., August A.

J. C. JOHNSTON, M. D., Deputy United States Revenue Collector at Negaunee; he was born in Cattaraugus County; N. Y., September 1, 1828; he is the son of William H. and Sally (Hulburt) Johnston. When twenty-one years of age, he went to La forte, Ind., where he engaged in the mercantile business, continuing in that line seven years; he then studied medicine at the Indiana Medical College, La Porte, and graduated in 1849. In the spring of 1850, he went South, and practiced his profession in Missouri and Mississippi; he then went to New York city, where he spent four years; he then spent several years in traveling in the West, practicing his profession in various places eight years; he then went to Carrollton, Ill., where he practiced thirteen years. In 1875, he took a regular course of lectures at the Rush Medical College of Chicago, and received his diploma. After leaving Carrollton, he resided at Jackson, Mich., till 1876, when he moved to Negaunee; he was appointed Deputy Collector of Revenue at that place in July, 1877, and has held the position to this date; he was married in Jackson, Mich., June 3, 1866, to Miss Phy. M. Perry, daughter of L. G. Perry. Mrs. Dr. Johnson was born in Jackson, Mich.

PHILLIP B. KIRKWOOD, druggist, was born in Dublin, Ireland, November 20, 1842; he is the son of Dr. Thomas A. A. and Anna (Boys) Kirkwood. The father was of Scotch descent and the mother of English. Dr. Kirkwood came to America in 1856, arriving in New York July 4, where he was received with a salute of cannon and a display of flags that very much surprised him; he proceeded to Oshkosh, Wis., and engaged as drug clerk. Subsequently, the formed a partnership with a Mr. Smith. This connection lasted only a year, when he sold out, and in 1865 went to Escanaba, Mich., and entered the employ of the Chicago & North-Western Railway as agent for the merchandise department. While in discharge of his duties, he billed the first cargo of iron ore shipped from that place; he came to Negaunee within a year, and engaged as clerk with Dr. Cyr in his store. Shortly afterward, he bought a half interest in the business. This connection was continued three years; he then sold out and went to California. On his return, in the fall of 1871, he participated in the exciting scenes of the great fire at Chicago. On reaching Negaunee, he engaged in the drug business with his brother—Charles H.—who was already established in the same business at Ishpeming. In the fall of 1878, they dissolved partnership, he taking the store at Negaunee and his brother the one at Ishpeming, since which time he has conducted the business alone; he has a well stocked store of drugs, medicines, stationery, fancy goods, wines, liquors and cigars, toys and notions. Mr. Kirkwood was married, at Negaunee, September 20, 1874, to Mrs. M. E. Schenck, daughter of Samuel O'Donohue. They have one child living, a son—Thomas. Mr. Kirkwood has served one term as Mayor of Negaunee, two years as Coroner, and is now serving as Assessor (1882); he has been an active member of the order of Freemasons; he organized the first lodge of that order in Negaunee in 1866, of which he was master several years; he was also one of the first organizers of a chapter at Marquette. Mich.

SIDNEY P. KLINE, of the firm of Sporley & Kline, hardware merchants, was born in Cicero, Onondaga Co., N. Y., January 27, 1843; he is the son of William J. and Susan Kline. When two years of age (1845), he accompanied his parents to Wisconsin, who located at Eagle, Waukesha County. After completing his schooling, he engaged in business as a lumber and produce dealer; continued this business until 1869, when he engaged in the hardware, drug and grocery business; he was also engaged in the dry goods line; he closed out the former business in 1871, and the latter in October, 1872; he then came to Negaunee and engaged as book keeper with Wheelock & Winter, merchants, and continued with them and their successors, Winter & Suess, till October, 1881, when he formed his present connection with Mr. G. Sporley. Mr. Kline served in the late war as a member of Company A, Twenty-fourth Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry. He enlisted July 31, 1862, and served till June, 1865, and participated in all engagements in which his regiment was engaged; he was married at Eagle, Wis., October 5, 1871, to Miss Mary L. Hinkley, daughter of A. R. Hinkley. Mrs. Kline was born in Eagle, Wis.; her family was among the early pioneers of that place. They have had two children—Grace L. and one lost in infancy.

JAMES N. KNUCKEY, pit foreman New York Hematite Mine, was born in Cornwall, England, June 25, 1845; emigrated to America in 1861, and came to Lake Superior in 1865; worked in the copper country two years; came to this county and worked in the Cheshire Mine. Since June 1, 1881, he has been pit foreman for Messrs. Foley & Adams; he was married to Miss Jennie Haley, a native of Bath, England, August 1, 1873. At the present time, Mr. Knuckey is at Lake Antoine, Menominee County, in charge of an exploring party.

I. H. KRAEMER, dealer in general merchandise, is a native of Germany, and was born May 18, 1850; came to this country in 1886; lived in Milwaukee for some years, and came to this State in 1874 and located in Negaunee, and established his present business, and has built up a large and successful trade.

THEODORE KRUSE is a native of Germany, and was born in Prussia January 29, 1826. After reaching manhood, he emigrated to America in 1846, and lived in New York State, and afterward removed to Milwaukee; he came to Lake Superior in 1859, and located at Marquette, and built a furnace on the "Chocolay." The following year, he went to the copper country, and lived at Houghton and Hancock four years; then went to Marquette and took charge of manufacturing for Burt Bros. for one year; then he came to Negaunee and engaged in building; he built the large school building, and has done much building for the Iron Cliff Company. When he came to this country, he had nothing, and his success is owing to his own efforts. He is now erecting for himself one of the finest houses in the county; he has held town offices. In 1855, Mr. Kruse was united in marriage to Miss Sarah Garvey, of New Jersey. They have nine children—John A., Delia, Louise, Emma, Nellie, Charles, Frank, Mary and Gertrude.

G. L. KUHLMAN, grocer, established his business June 6, 1877; he was born in Westphalia, Germany, January 21, 1850; he is the son of Arnoldt and Amalia Kuhlman; he came to America May 7, 1869, and located at Milwaukee, Wis., where he was employed three years as clerk in a dry goods establishment; he then moved to Green Bay. There he engaged as clerk with W. C. Pettibone, merchant; he also served some time as post office clerk under W. C. Thomas. In June, 1877, he came to Negaunee, Mich., and on the 6th of that month established his present business. Mr. Kuhlman, by strict attention to business and fair dealing, has built up a substantial trade, and his establishment ranks as one of the leading grocery stores of Negaunee. He carries a large stock of staple and fancy groceries, provisions, crockery, glassware, cigars, tobacco, etc.; he was married in Marquette, Mich., June 6, 1877, to Miss Emma A. Brown. Mrs. Kuhlman was born at Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. Mr. Kuhlman is agent for several lines of ocean steamersthe White and Cross and Edward Carr's Hamburg Lines.

NICHOLAS LAUGHLIN, grocer (established himself in business in this place in 1870), was born in Ireland April, 1845; he received a liberal education; was awarded a teacher's certificate by the Educational Board of Examiners, and entered upon the duties of that profession in 1858, at the early age of fourteen years; he taught a national school about seven years, or till July, 1865, when he emigrated to America, and located at Negaunee, Mich.; he began business as a dealer in wines and liquors. Soon after his settlement here, he was elected Township Clerk, and served one year; he was elected the first City Recorder of Negaunee in 1872; was re-elected, and held the office continuously till 1879; he also served as Village Clerk four years, and has been Justice of the Peace since 1872 and six years as a member of the Board of Education. Mr. Laughlin was burned out April 19, 1874, sustaining a loss of about $8,500; he soon started in business again, and in 1877 put in a full stock of groceries and provisions. At this writing, he has two brick stores and a well-stocked general grocery and provision store, glassware, crockery, hay, grain, feed, and also deals in wines, liquors and cigars; he was married at Negaunee, July 31, 1873, to Miss Bridget Manning, daughter of Dennis Manning. Mrs. Laughlin was born in Canada. They have had seven children, of whom five are living—Nicholas, Edward, Mary, Emma and Katie. Two were lost in infancy.

REV. L. E. LENNOX, pastor M. E. Church, is a native of Canada; he grew up and received his preparatory education there; then pursued his theological studies in Boston. After completing his studies, in 1876, he was appointed on the White Rock Circuit for two years; then returned to Boston, where he pursued his studies another year; then joined the Conference of Ann Arbor; for two years was pastor of Church in Detroit, and in September, 1881, was appointed to the pastorate of the church in Negaunee.

EDWARD LOBB, proprietor railroad hotel and saloon, was born in Cornwall, England, August 17, 1849; emigrated to America in 1868; came up to Lake Superior the same year; worked in the mines for seven years, and then started his present business; he married Miss Elizabeth Down, from County Devon, England, May 1, 1873. They have two children—Nathaniel and Eliza Jane—and lost one child.

NICHOLAS LONSTORF, capitalist, was born in Prussia May 6, 1831, and emigrated to America in 1849. Two years later, in 1851, he came to Lake Superior, and the following year went to Ontonagon, where he remained four years. After spending a few years in Wisconsin, he came to Marquette in 1860, and was engaged in the mercantile business there five years. In 1865, he came to Negaunee, and was engaged in mercantile business here until 1873. In 1880, he again engaged in business, and continued for only one year, when he sold out, and since then has not been engaged in active business. In 1857, Mr. Lonstorf was united in marriage to Miss Margaret Zeien. She was born in Prussia. They have eleven children, four sonsArnold, George, Otto and Eugene—and seven daughters—Othilda, Bertha, Ida, Hettie, Male, Addle and Bernadino. They lost two sons by drowning—Bernard, aged eleven years, and Eddie, aged ten years.

E. A. MAAS, manager Star Mining Company, is a native of Lake Superior, and was born at Eagle River November 2, 1854; his parents removed to Marquette when he was three years of age. During boyhood, he entered the hardware store of his father, and learned the business, and afterward took a course in commercial college; then had charge of his father's store for a time, when he spent two years at school at Notre Dame and at Ann Arbor. After his return, he took the position of assistant cashier of the First National Bank; was afterward superintendent of the Humboldt Mining Company, and while holding that position discovered and opened the mine. On the 1st of May, 1882, he became manager of the Star Hematite Mine; he has had a large and practical experience in mining.

A. C. MACKENZIE, surgeon to the Iron Cliffs Iron Ore Mining and Smelting Company, was born in Ohio November 13, 1838; he received his literary education in New York State, and pursued his medical studies in the city of New York and in Brooklyn, and is a graduate of the Medical College of New York City and also of the Long Island College Hospital, Brooklyn; he came to Lake Superior in 1869; located at Negaunee and engaged in the practice of medicine, and since then has successfully practiced his profession here, and is a leading member of the profession in the State. In 1867, Dr. Mackenzie was united in marriage to Miss Helen M. Sterling, a native of New York State. They have five children.

ALEXANDER W. MAITLAND, manager of the Iron Cliff Mining Company, is a native of Scotland, and was born in Ayrshire June 22, 1844; his parents came to Canada in 1856; he came to Lake Superior in 1864, and entered the employ of the Iron Cliff Mining Company. For thirteen years, he held the position of surveyor and engineer for the company, and during most of that time served as acting assistant manager; he was formally appointed to that position in the spring of 1880, and the following year was appointed general manager, and since then has held that responsible position; he is also manager of the Cambria Mining Company. There are few men in the Lake Superior iron mining region of his age who have had so large and practical an experience; he held the office of Postmaster for four years; was elected County Surveyor two terms, and has served four years in the Common Council. Mr. Maitland was united in marriage, June 10, 1874, to Miss Carrie V. Sterling, a native of Utica, N. Y. They have two children, one sonAlexander F.—and one daughterKate.

L. A. MARSELL, of the firm of Marsell & Co., merchants, was born in Canada November 3, 1844. He is the son of Andrew and Adelaide Marsell. When fourteen years of age, he moved with his parents to Vermont; subsequently moved to Massachusetts and from there to New York. In 1865, Mr. Mar-sell went to St. Louis, Mo., where he remained two years, and then went to Janesville, Wis., and in 1870, came to Negaunee, Mich., where he engaged in the mercantile business with Dr. L. D. Cyr, under the firm name of Marsell & Company, in April of that year. This firm does a general dry goods business, having one of the largest and best stocked stores on the Peninsula; their average stock is valued at $20,000. Mr. Marsell was married in Negaunee, June 11, 1874, to Miss Josephine O. Trelease, daughter of Edward E. Trelease; they have one child, a daughter named Effie A.

NORMAN McLEOD, undertaker and dealer in general furniture. His business was established in 1875. He was born in Glengarry County, Ontario, Canada, March 8, 1842. He is the son of Donald and Cristie McLeod. In 1863, he came to Michigan and located at Portage Lake. In 1865, he moved to Negaunee and engaged in the painting business, continuing in this line till 1877, when he entered upon his present business. His stock is very full and complete and averages in value about $5,000; his being the main establishment in his line in this region, his freight bills rank fourth in importance in the city. He was married in 1872, in Canada, to Miss Isabella McLeod, daughter of Alex McLeod. One child was born to them, a daughter—Christina. Mr. McLeod lost his wife, who died within a year after his marriage. He was married again, July 18, 1878, in Negaunee, to Miss Margaret J. Duncan, daughter of Robert Duncan of Columbus, Ohio. Mr. McLeod has held various official positions. He served two terms as City Treasurer of Negaunee, and once as Supervisor.

MEESKE & HOCH, brewers, proprietors of the Peninsula Brewery of Negaunee, and Marquette Brewery of Marquette. Mr. Hoch was born near Cologne, Germany, October 18, 1853. He is the son of William and Mary Hoch. At the early age of three months, he emigrated to America with his parents. They made their home in Waukesha, Wis. Sixteen years were spent in that place, and then they moved to Milwaukee, where the father kept hotel; he assisted his father in that business about eleven years, and then came to Lake Superior, where he formed a partnership with Mr. Meeske in the brewery business, November, 1878. In May, 1881, they purchased the brewery at Negaunee. Mr. Hoch at once moved to this place and took charge of this branch of the business, while Mr. Meeske remained in charge of the Marquette establishment. The brewery at Negaunee, called the "Peninsula Brewery" was built by Voelker & Etty in 1869, a frame structure. In 1870, they sold out to George C. Sheldon, who carried on the business four or five years and then suspended business. The brewery remained idle a few years, when it was bought by Frank Leibenstein, who operated it till May, 1881, when he sold it to the present proprietors. Messrs. Meeske & Hoch have greatly improved the premises, building a fine brick malt house of a capacity of 150,000 bushels yearly. They also repaired and painted the brewery; built a dwelling, and house adjacent. The brewery has a capacity of 25,000 barrels yearly, and has a reputation for turning out the best quality of beer. The Marquette brewery, owned and operated by this firm, is a still larger concern. Mr. Hoch was married at Sheboygan, Wis., May 14, 1878, to Miss Matilda Geele, daughter of Frank Geele. Mrs. Hoch was born in Sheboygan, Wis.; they have one child, a daughter—Elsie, born October, 19, 1881. Mr. Hoch has served as Supervisor of Marquette for the years 1880 and 1881.

GEORGE MERRY, Under Captain of the Jackson Mine, is a native of Oxfordshire, England, and was born December 24, 1827; emigrated to America in 1865, and came to Negaunee the same year, and began work in the Jackson Mine. He has been with the company ever since; he was foreman of the timber works for a long time, and for the past year has been Under Captain. He married Miss Margaret Corbett, a native Of Cumberland, England, in October, 1853; they have three children—Mary, Elizabeth, and Margaret, and have lost one son, Henry.

HARRY G. MERRY, agent of the McComber Iron Mining Company, is a son of Capt. Henry Merry, the pioneer in mining interests here, and was born November 10, 1861. He grew up and received his education here, and was connected with the Jackson Mining Company for many years. In February, 1882, he was appointed to his present position as agent of the McComber Mining Company.

CAPTAIN HENRY MERRY, Manager of the Jackson Mine, Marquette, is a native of Oxfordshire, England, and was born February 13, 1830. He emigrated to this country in 1851; went to Cleveland and remained there until 1854, when he came to Marquette County, and located at Marquette, where he engaged in building docks. In 1858, he came to Negaunee and became manager of the Jackson Mine, and since that time, for a period of twenty-four years, he has held this position of trust and responsibility. Capt. Merry was united in marriage to Miss Sarah Ray, a native of Wales, July 3, 1854. They have two sonsHarry G. and Thomas; also one adopted daughter, Minnie. They have lost one daughter, Eva, and two sons, Ray and George.

ERNEST MEYER. jeweler, is a native of Germany, and was born December 31, 1845. He grew up and learned the trade of jeweler and watchmaker, then came to this country in 1874, and came to Negaunee in 1877; worked at his trade until 1880, when he took charge of the jewelry department of Dr. Cyr's business. He was united in marriage, September 22, 1881, to Miss Bertha Peterman of Milwaukee.

L. L. MILLER, of the firm of Miller Bros., groceries, was born in Germany November 29, 1849. He is the son of John and Sophia Miller. He came to America with his parents in 1850. The family located near Rochester, N. Y., where they resided two years, and then removed to Monroe, Mich.; two years later to Wyandotte, and from the latter place to Negaunee, Mich., in 1859. At eleven years of age, the subject of this sketch began work in the iron mines of this place, at which he worked four and a half years. He was next employed as a clerk in the store of G. D. Stone, and remained in that gentleman's employ fifteen years. In October, 1881, he formed a partnership with his brother, J. P., in the grocery trade, in which they are now engaged. They are just opening in a new stand on Iron street, where they will keep a general stock of flour, feed and provisions, groceries and glassware. Mr. L. L. Miller was married, October 6, 1875, at Negaunee, to Miss Maggie McLaughlin, daughter of Thomas McLaughlin; they had two children born to them—Benjamin J. and Thomas J.; the latter died in infancy. Mr. Miller lost his wife, who died May 22, 1879.

P. C. J. MILLER, saloon, was born in Denmark June 10, 1851; emigrated to America in 1870; came to Lake Superior in 1873; located at Marquette and had charge of the railroad company's mercantile piers for about seven years, and employed between sixty and seventy men; also kept the City Hotel. In 1881, he came to Negaunee, and engaged in his present business. He is a member of the order of Forresters; the Danish Society and the Brothers Society.

EDMUND MINESS, mining Captain, is a native of Cornwall, England, and was born April 17, 1837. He emigrated to America in August, 1864, and came to Ontonagon; worked in the Minesota Mine a short time, and engaged in prospecting; came to Marquette County in 1866, and worked in the Jackson Mine; afterward went to Ishpeming and worked in the Lake Superior Mine for a year and a half; has been engaged in mining since then. For the past two years has opened the Chicago Mine and engaged in exploring for ore. He married Miss Rebecca Davey, a native of Cornwall, England, December 29, 1859; they have four children—Mary E., William J.. Ellen J, and Edwin.

CAPT. J. P. MITCHELL, capitalist, is a native of Devonshire, England; was born March 3, 1831; emigrated to America in 1861, and the following year came to Lake Superior, and engaged in copper mining; remained there six years and then moved to Negaunee, and became actively connected with the iron mining here, and since then has been successfully and prominently identified with iron interests. He has also been largely interested in iron mining in Canada, and mining interests in Colorado. When Capt. Mitchell came to the copper region in 1862, after paying for his breakfast he had only 50 cents left. His success in life is the result of his own efforts. He has been twice married; his first wife, Miss Mary Spry, from Devonshire. England, died February 14, 1866, leaving four children—Charles S., John S.. Albert and William. Capt. Mitchell married Lucy Thorpe, March 1, 1870; she is a native of Yorkshire, England. She has two children—Katie Thorpe and Charles F., by a former husband.

P. MITCHELL, manager of drug and jewelry business for Dr. L. D. Cyr, is a native of Lake Superior and was born Oct. 18, 1861, in the copper region; he attended school there and in Massachusetts, where he completed his education. He entered the drug store of Dr. Cyr in 1875, and since then for the past seven years has been identified with it, and since 1879 has had the management of the business.

P. J. MITCHELL, is a native of the North of England, and came to Lake Superior in 1854, and was one of the early settlers, and engaged in mining in the copper region. He was connected with the Quincy Mine. and built the Quincy Stamp Mills. He discovered the Smith Mine and the Edwards Mine, and held the superintendency of the Lake Angeline. In 1872, he went to Canada, and afterward to Salt Lake and New Mexico, to introduce his patent machinery for separating the rock from the silver and copper ore, and has twenty-two of his machines in successful operation at the Santa Rita copper mines. He married Miss Jennette Robertson, a native of Edinboro, Scotland; they have five children—four sons and one daughter.

WILLIAM N. MORSE, of the firm of Morse Bros. & Company, dealers in general merchandise and produce. In addition to their mercantile business they own and operate the principal warehouse in the city. This business was established by Spear, Morse & Company, in the fall of 1872. Three or four years later, a change occurred in the firm, and the name changed to J. W. Spear & Company. Since May, 1879, the firm has been Morse Bros. & Company; composed of John E., William N. and Austin B. Morse, and their mother, Mrs. Martha E. Morse. This firm carries a large stock of dry goods, clothing and general merchandise, and does an extensive warehouse business. William N. Morse was born in Dalton, Ga., January 26, 1849. He is the son of Benjamin C. Morse, who was a native of Vermont, and emigrated to Georgia in 1838, and was married to Miss Martha E. Blunt, a native of Brainard Mission, Tenn. The family moved from Georgia to Missouri. On the breaking out of the war they were the only ones that hoisted the Union flag in their town. The political atmosphere soon got so hot that they were obliged to accept a not very polite invitation to leave town, and they immediately moved to Galesburg, Ill., 1861. They continued to reside at that place till September, 1863, when they moved to Marquette, Mich. The father died the February following. In 1869, William N. came to Negaunee, and engaged in the store of the Iron Cliff Company; continued with that company till the fall of 1872, when he engaged in business with J. W. Spear as given above. Mr. Morse was married at the Sault Ste. Marie, September 25, 1876, to Miss Ruth A. Trelease, daughter of Edward A. Trelease. Mrs. Morse was born at the Sault. Three children were born to themMartha B., Ruth E. and Lois O. The eldest (Martha B.) died in infancy.

CHARLES MUCK, meat market, is a native of Germany and was born June 24, 1832. He emigrated to this country in 1860, and came to Negaunee in 1864, and established his present business; his market is the oldest in Negaunee. He has held the office of Assessor and City Treasurer. He married Miss Louisa Dahl, a native of Germany, in November, 1865. They have seven children—Clara, Frank, Hugo, Rosa, Emma, Charles and Ida. They have lost three children.

CHARLES J. H. MUELLER, of the firm of Mueller & Roester, grocers, successors to C. Stoppenbach, who established the business in October, 1879, and sold to the present proprietors in September, 1881. He was born in Jefferson, Wis., July 7, 1855. He is the son of J. M. Mueller. In the fall of 1871, he went to South Bend, Ind., where he was employed as merchant's clerk till 1879, when he came to Negaunee, Mich., with Mr. Stoppenbach, and clerked in his store till September, 1881, when he and Mr. Christ Boesler bought out Mr. Stoppenbach, and have since carried on the business. They have a well-stocked grocery, known as the Red Front, where they keep a full line of staple and fancy groceries, fruits and vegetables. Mr. Mueller was married, October 7, 1879, to Miss Katie Roesler, daughter of Christian Roesler. Mrs. Mueller was born in Jefferson, Wis. They have one child, a daughter named Linda.

BENJAMIN NEELY, hardware merchant. Business established May 1, 1870 was born in Baltimore, Md., June 9, 1844. He is the son of William and Jane (Baird) Neely. When five years of age, he accompanied his parents to Massachusetts, and five years later to Rochester, N. Y. Remaining there two years, he went to Green Bay, Wis., arriving in that city in 1856. He remained in that place till 1860, and then moved to Houghton, Mich. There he learned the tinner's trade, and in 1867, came to Negaunee; worked three years as a journeyman till 1870, and then established his present business; he carries a full line of heavy and shelf hardware, stoves and tinware. He is interested in the construction of a fine brick block now in course of erection at the corner of Iron and — streets, adjacent to his present store. Mr. Neely was married in Houghton February 15, 1866, to Miss Elizabeth Connor. They have six childrenJennie, Willie B., Harry, Benjamin, May L. and Amber.

V. J. NEWMAN, agent Marquette, Houghton & Ontonagon Railroad and agent of the American Express Company; is a native of Portsmouth, England, and was born January 21, 1839. He grew up and received his education in the British Naval Gunnery Service, and afterward held the position of Gunner and Gunnery Instructor in the Portsmouth Naval College. In 1862, during our civil war, he came to America to enter the naval service. He was engaged for several months in the New York Navy Yard, teaching the practice of small arms and cutlass drill; was then assigned to the South Atlantic blockading squadron, and served as chief gunnery aide on the staff of Admiral Dahlgren. He met Gen. Sherman at Savannah, after his march to the sea; served three years. After the war, he came to Lake Superior and accepted the position of agent for the M., H. & O. R. R., at Ishpeming; remained there eight years, when he came to Negaunee, and has since then held the same position with the company here; he has been connected with the company for the past sixteen years, and holds the position of agent for the American Express Company. Mr. Newman was united in marriage in October, 1867, to Mrs. Fanny J. Adsit, a native of Hull, England; they have one daughterMyra S.

AUGUST OLSON, wholesale agent for Best's beer and saloon, was born in Sweden April 28, 1849; came to this country in 1869; came to Lake Superior the same year; engaged in his present business in 1874. He has the agency for Best's Milwaukee beer, and sells from four to six car loads a month; also has the agency of H. B. Franklin & Co.'s cigars. He married a Miss Anna Sundberg on September 6, 1878. She is a native of Sweden. They have one sonRudolph Wilfread, born May 4, 1879.

H. E. PEARSE, banker, Negaunee, is a native of Rutland County, Vt., and was born March 20, 1833. From early boyhood, he grew up in Northern Ohio, and came to Marquette in 1867 and entered the First National Bank, and was connected with that institution for twelve years. He came to Negaunee February 1, 1881, since then has been successfully engaged in the banking business here. His banking house is large and commodious, with a splendid vault 16x24 inside, with wall twenty inches thick and a solid iron and steel safe, the only absolute burglar proof safe in the Upper Peninsula. Mr. P. was united in marriage to Miss Helen Birdsall, from Huron County, Ohio, October 17, 1854. They have one son-Frank E., and a danghterAnna L.

GEORGE R. PERSONS, manager of the J. Q. Adams Insurance Agency, is a native of Ogdensburg, N. Y., and was born August 14, 1850; he received his education in that State and came to Lake Superior in 1875, and located in Negaunee. He is cashier of the insurance agency of J. Q. Adams, comprising fifteen of the best fire insurance companies, and has charge of the agency, which does a large business here and along the line of the railroad. Mr. Persons also holds the position of cashier of the Milwaukee Iron Mining Company.

LOUIS PETERSON, saloon and billiard room, is a native of Denmark, and was born November 12, 1856; emigrated to this country in 1878, and came to Negaunee the same year; has been engaged in his present business only a short time.

JOSEPH H. PRIMEAU, Justice of the Peace, was born in Ste. Martine, Chateauguay Co., Canada, August 30, 1843. He is the son of Antoine and Angelica (Reid) Primeau. He was educated at the Montreal College, and at the Masson College, Terrebonne, graduating from the latter in 1863. He next attended the regular course at the Military School of Quebec, from which he graduated in 1864, with first and second class certificates. He was next a law student two years, and in 1868 came to Negaunee, Mich., where he remained until 1871. He then went to Marquette, where he engaged as merchant's clerk, and devoted considerable time to teaching the French language. He was elected City Recorder of Marquette in 1873; was re-elected, and held the office seven years. He was also Justice of the Peace at the same time, and City Librarian, by virtue of his office of Recorder. He returned to Negaunee in March, 1881, where he was engaged in the insurance business. In the spring of 1882, he was elected Justice of the Peace of Negaunee. Mr. P. was married at St. Philomene, Chateauguay Co., Canada, November 19, 1867, to Miss Angelica McComber, daughter of Constant and Catharine Aubert (De Gaspe) McComber. Mrs. P. was born in Canada. They have three children livingAugusta, Marie Louise and Joseph H. Mr. P. is a thorough Democrat in politics, and has been an earnest and influential supporter of that party in the Upper Peninsula.

J. E. RICHARDSON, carriage manufacturer, is a native of St. Lawrence County, N. Y.; was born March 10, 1834. He grew up and learned his trade in that State; came West to Wisconsin in 1865, and located in Fond du Lac, and carried on his business there for ten years. In 1875, he came to Negaunee and built his present factory, and since then has continued the business, and is the only exclusive manufacturer of light carriages on the Upper Peninsula, and has a good trade. During the war, he enlisted and served in the Fiftieth Regiment New York Engineer Corps. While living in Fond du Lac, he was a member of the City Council. He belongs to the Masonic order and the A. O. U. W. Mr. Richardson married Miss Harriet E. Welch, a native of St. Lawrence County, N. Y. They have five children—Arthur, Alice, Sanford, Bessie and Bertie.

HARRY ROBERTS, Mining Captain and Superintendent, is a native of Cornwall, England, and was born March 26, 1852; came to this county in 1868, and came to Lake Superior the same year, and engaged in mining at the Jackson Mine, and was with that company for twelve years. He afterward held the position of Captain and Superintendent of the McComber and Pascoe and Dalliba Mines, and helped to open the Cheshire Mine. Since then he has been engaged in exploring and locating mines. He has held the office of School Inspector. Mr. R. was united in marriage to Miss Jennette Cox Corwall, a native of Cornwall, England, September 9, 1873. They have three children—May Teuby, Gertrude, William Henry. They lost one daughter—Nina.

WILLIAM ROBERTS, Superintendent Ohio Valley Iron Company, is a native of Cornwall, England, and was born August 24, 1854. He emigrated to this country in 1870, and came to Lake Superior the same year. He came to Negaunee in 1870, and began work in the Jackson Mine. He also worked in the Michigamme and the Lake Superior Mines. He went to Canada and opened the Dufferin Mine for Captain Mitchell. He held the position of Superintendent of the Boston and Sterling Mines, and shipped 20,000 tons of ore last year. On the 1st of June, he became Superintendent of the Ohio Valley Iron Company; is also a stockholder of the same.

JAMES A. ROOT, foreman of foundry Iron Cliff Company, is a native of Litchfield County, Conn., and was born November 2, 1826. During infancy, his parents removed to Ohio, and he grew up there until eighteen years of age, then returned to Connecticut. He came to Negaunee in 1874, and since then has held his present position of foreman in charge of both furnaces. He is one of the oldest furnace men in this country, having an active continuous experience of thirty-seven years, and has been with Mr. Barnum for the past twenty years. In 1869, while living in Connecticut, he was elected Representative to the State Legislature, and held the office of Justice of the Peace for many years; also held other town offices. Mr. Root was united in marriage April 20, 1848, to Miss Rhoda P. Phillipps. She is a native of Canaan, Litchfield Co., Conn. They have a son, Eugene S., and one daughter, Olive V.

ROWLAND SAVAGE, dealer in paints, oils and varnish, window glass and sash, was born in St. Johns, Lower Canada, February 11, 1835. He moved to Goderich, Upper Canada; was raised there, and learned his trade in Detroit, Mich. He came to Negaunee in 1870, and engaged in painting, and has carried on the business ever since. He married Miss Elizabeth Meagher, a native of New Brunswick, July 3, 1860. They have five sonsCharles F., Francis M., Rowland J. J., George H. and Edward C., and lost one daughterMary.

JOHN W. SCHADT, mine owner, is a native of Holstein, Germany, was born August 13, 1830; emigrated to this country in 1857, and came to Lake Superior in 1864, and engaged in the mercantile business in the copper region; remained there until he was burned out in 1868; then engaged in mining and exploring for minerals. He discovered the Chicago Mine, and has subleased the ground on which the Milwaukee Mine was discovered. In 1863, he married Miss Anna Schrottky, a native of Germany. They have four childrenOtto, Felix. Oscar and Alphonse.

JACOB SCHNEIDER, billiard hall and saloon, was born in Germany August 16, 1833; emigrated to America in 1841, and grew up in Wisconsin; was one of the early settlers there. He came to Marquette County in 1872, and for seven years has carried on his business in Ishpeming and Negaunee. He has fine, large rooms, with five billiard tables. He holds the office of Alderman from the Second Ward. He married Miss Dora Vildey, a native of Washington County, Wis. They have nine children, five sons and four daughters—Edward, Richard, Henry, Fred, Frank, Mary, Clara, Emma and Benaid.

A. C. SEASS, proprietor and owner of the Breitung House, is a native of Albany, N. Y., and was born October 3, 1847. After reaching manhood, he came West to Oshkosh, Wis., in 1870; remained there three years, and in 1873 came to Negaunee and engaged in the manufacture of cigars; since then, for the past nine years, he has successfully carried on the business here, employing five men, and makes between two and three hundred thousand cigars annually. In August, 1879, he began building the hotel now known as the Breitung House. It is finely located at the head of Iron street, and was completed and furnished at a cost of $35,000. It has all modern improvements, steam and gas, and fine sample rooms. It is one of the largest and best appointed hotels in the State, and is a credit to the town and to the enterprise of its owner. Mr. Seass served as Alderman from the Second Ward three years, and then resigned. He has served as Treasurer of the Fire Department, and in various societies. Mr. Seass married Miss Mary E. Woleben from East Springfield, N. Y., July 3, 1867. They have three childrenLillian, Leverne and Eva.

G. SPORLEY, of the firm of Sporley & Kline, hardware merchants, and of the firm of Fox & Sporley, harness-makers. He was born in Germany in 1827; came to America in 1857, and located at Marquette, Mich. One year later, he moved to Negaunee; spent one year in mining, and then opened a wine and liquor store. In October, 1879, he formed a partnership with Leonard Rupelt, in the hardware business, under the firm name of Rupelt & Sporley. This connection lasted nine months, when Mr. Rupelt retired, and Mr. Sporley continued the business alone till October, 1881, when Mr. Sidney P. Kline bought in, and the firm of Sporley & Kline was organized. They carry a general stock of hardware, stoves, iron, nails, tinware, steam-pipe and fittings. Mr. Sporley was married in Germany shortly before coming to America. Seven children were born to themCarrie, Charles, Adolph, Carrie, Louis, Tillie and Lizzie. The eldest (Carrie) died in childhood.

WILLIAM H. SPROUL, book-keeper in store of Iron Cliff Company, is a native of Pennsylvania, and was born November 6, 1837. He grew up and received his education in that State. He came to Lake Superior in April, 1874, to enter the employ of the Iron Cliff Company at Negaunee. For the past five years he has held his present position as book-keeper for store of the Iron Cliff Company. He was elected Supervisor in 1881. Mr. Sproul was united in marriage March 5, 1862, to Miss Dora D. Slokom, a native of Pennsylvania. They have two childrenSamuel E. and Willie.

J. F. STEVENS, manager of the Cheshire and Swanzey Mines, was born in Syracuse, N. Y., November 4, 1848. He received his education in that State. He has spent many years of travel all over this country, Europe, South America and China, and has visited nearly all parts of the world, for the benefit of, and to restore his health. During the oil excitement he was largely interested in developing oil lands in Pennsylvania. He came to Negaunee in 1870, to attend to his mining interests, and since then has had charge of the development of the mines. He has also large mining interests in Leadville, Colo., and spends a part of his time there. He was chosen Chairman of the Senatorial Convention and of other conventions, and has held various town offices too numerous to mention. Mr. Stevens married Miss Ella Calhoun, of Milwaukee, February 14, 1874. They have four childrenAlice, George, Lydia and Clara.

CHARLES SUNDBERG, watchmaker and jeweler; business was established in 1870; was born in Stockholm, Sweden, September 1, 1845. He is a son of Gustave and Elizabeth Sundberg. In 1864, he came to America and located at Marquette, Mich. He remained at that place till 1869, when he removed to Negaunee, and in 1870 engaged in his present business. He was also engaged in the wine and liquor business till 1878. He was married July 5, 1871, at Negaunee, to Miss Mary Anderson, daughter of Sheriff August Anderson. Mr. Anderson and Mr. Sundberg were jointly interested in the jewelry business, having a branch store at Ishpeming. In 1873, they dissolved partnership, Mr. Anderson taking the Ishpeming store and Mr. Sundberg the Negaunee establishment. Mrs. Sundberg was born in Berso, Sweden. They have two children livingIda and Eva, and lost three in childhood.

CHARLES G. THOREN, merchant tailor, was born in Sweden November 9, 1838; he grew up and learned his trade there, and in 1867 emigrated to this country. Three years later, in 1870, he came to Negaunee and worked at his trade for five years. In 1875, he established his present business, and for the past seven years has carried it on successfully, and has built up an excellent business; he carries a large and well-selected stock of goods to meet the demands of his extensive trade. Mr. T. married Miss Johanna Peterson, a native of Sweden, November 4, 1862. They have had six children, four of whom surviveCharlie, Theodore. Clara and Titus.

JAMES TREMBATH, proprietor Jackson House, is a native of Cornwall, England, and was born January 28, 1836. He emigrated to America in 1867, and came to Lake Superior and located at Negaunee, and engaged in mining in the Jackson Mine; was there nine years; then engaged in the hotel business, and for the past six years has run the Jackson House, one of the oldest and best known hotels here. In 1856, he married Miss Eliza Williams. She died in 1864, leaving four children—Dio W., James G., Frances M. and Harry. In 1866, he married Miss Grace Williams, a native of Cornwall, England. He belongs to the I. O. O. F.

M. J. WHITNEY, Superintendent of Schools, is a native of Michigan, and was born at Mount Clemens, Macomb County, June 4, 1846. During boyhood, he attended the district schools. At the breaking-out of the rebellion, he enlisted at the age of fifteen, but being too young, did not go in the field. He afterward enlisted in the Twenty-second Michigan Volunteer Infantry, and served until the close of the war. After his return from the service, he took a thorough business college course, and in 1869 entered the State Normal School, and graduated in 1872; in fall of same year commenced teaching at Houghton, and had charge of the schools there for nine years, and during this time did much to advance educational interests there. He resigned his position there, to take charge of the schools here. He has held the position of Town and County Superintendent of Schools, and is now one of the Board of Examiners for Marquette County. Prof. Whitney was united in marriage, July 5, 1876, to Miss E. M. Fuller, from Mendota, Ill. They have had four children, only son survives—Robert A.

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