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     The territory comprised in the town of Elmwood is, by government survey, designated as township 14 north, of range 10 east.
     the surface of the country is generally rolling, some portions, however, especially in the western part being level.   The soil is a clay loam, a portion gravelly.  Maple, beech and hemlock are the prevailing natural growth, the last named predominating in the western sections of the town.
     Among the earlier settlers were Joseph White, George H. Wilcox and sons, Amos Predmore, John C. Laing and Warren Weydemeyer.  The earliest settlement dates from June 4, 1855, when Joseph White, his wife and five children, settled on section 33.  Mr. White was a native of Chenango County, N.Y., and at the time of coming thus to make for himself a new home in the wilderness of the West, was already an old man, being about sixty-four years of age.  They came by boat from Detroit to Saginaw, thence by team to Elmwood.  the journey from Saginaw took two days' time.  The only road for the last eleven miles was a "tote" or lumberman's, which, however serviceable when snow is on the ground, and thus "the rough places made smooth," are but a poor apology for a road in June.  The last mile and a half they had to cut out themselves.  It was well for them that they were strong for labor and hardy of heart and will as well as of arm, for they had their full measure of the toils, privation and discouragements inevitable in the life of a pioneer in the woods.  Sometimes they could get neither flour nor pork nearer than Saginaw, and the supply often ran low.  the nearest store and mill was Aaron Watrous', of Watrousville.
     It took five days for a trip to Saginaw and return with supplies.  Flour cost $10 per barrel in Saginaw and pork $20, and it cost $2 per barrel for delivery at a point one mile north of Caro.  A barrel of flour was at one time sent them by the way of Sebewaing, and trip to bring it in from there took two and a half days.  The water was sometimes into the wagon box.
     Mr. White died in 1880, aged eight-nine years and four months.  His widow is living with her daughter in Juniata at the age of eighty-five.  Of the children who came with them, Elijah S. lives on the old homestead; Mrs. James King resides in Juniata; Mrs. Frederick Rayner lives in Reed City; Andrew died in the army, and Caroline, wife of Amasa Faulkner, died in Caro.  another son, Inman, is living in the State of New York.
     The first marriage in the town was solemnized at the house of Joseph White in march, 1856, Rev. I.J.B. McKenney officiating.  The contracting parties were Frederick Rayner and Robie White.
     In 1857 B. F. and Tiffany Nettleton put up on Joseph White's place a frame barn, being the first frame building in the county above Caro, the lumber being brought from Wahjamega.
     The first chld born in the town was Anna Powell, in September, 1857.
     The first Fourth of July celebration in the town was held in 1860, near where now is Elmwood postoffice.  Rev. A. N.. Warren was chaplain;  John C. Laing, reader; Andrew O. McDonald, orator; and Simeon Botsford, marshal.  There were about one hundred persons present.
     Mail facilities until 1862 were anything but facile.  A club was formed of the families in the neighborhood and a formal agreement entered into by which every man was to take his turn in going to Watrousville and subsequently to Wahjamega for the mail, and of course this trip was made an occasion for shopping and the transaction of business.  This continued until 1862, when a mail route was established from Watrousville via Wahjamega to Forestville.  Dick Patty, of Watrousville, was the contractor.  The mail was carried once a week, on horseback usually, sometimes on foot.  The establishment of this mail route was as great an event tot he people along its line as is now the completion of the first railroad.  The postoffice was established at J. C. Laing's house, and Mr. Laing was appointed postmaster.  The office was subsequently removed to Elmwood village, or, as it has been nicknamed, "the shebang," where it is now located.
     The first sermon preached in the town was by the Rev. George Graham at the house of Joseph White in the year 1862, and the first church was organized by Rev. X. O. Smith in the winter of 1864, the church being of the Methodist Protestant denomination.
     The first school as taught by Lydia White in the first schoolhouse built in the town, in section 35.
     The first lawsuit was before Joseph Gage, justice of the peace, in the year 1864, John McGee being plaintiff and Simon Campbell defendant.
     The first death was of Theodore B. Myers, which occurred in March, 1865.
     The town of Elmwood suffered severely in the forest fires of 1871 and 1881, yet to a much less extent than many other towns.  The fire had not gained the intensity and rush which it attained as in advanced farther east.  In 1871 the fire had burned for about three weeks, when on the 9th of October a hurricane came on, blew down the timber which had been undermined, and carried the fire into the clearings.  In 1881 the destruction of property was greater, from the fact of so much down and dead timber being left by the previous fire to furnish fuel for the flames.  The worst of the fire was in the western part of the town, where the hemlock and other resinous woods were in greater abundance.  the following is a list of losses:
     Charles Andrews, house and contents; Joe Vallad, hay, straw and stable; Nelson Barse, oats, orchard; Robert Blouk, wheat; Daniel Evans, fodder, orchard; William Fournier, horse, harness, William Ware, hay, straw, stable, shed, orchard, lumber; J. B. Nicholson, hay, straw, fences, oats, furniture; Richard Pardo, fences, buckwheat; S. B. Bourn, barn, hay, grain, straw; Frank Seeley, fodder, wood; Al. Freeman, wheat, clothing; W. H. Mills, clothing, bedding; John Benedict, wheat, oats, tools; David Baucus, buckwheat, plow, wagon.  The fire had one good result, that it helped to clear and to bring under cultivation lands which were considered almost worthless, but are now found to be among the best in the town.  There is still a large area of good land awaiting settlement, and offered for sale at reasonable prices.

The following are the entries of land prior to 1860:


SECTION 1.    James Cleaver, July 26, 1855

SECTION 2.    Horace Bradley, March 19, 1857
                        Dexter F. Mitchell, April 14, 1857

SECTION 3.    Horace Bradley, March 19, 1857
                        Robert McFurlan, March 19, 1857
                        Dexter F. Mitchell, April 14, 1857
                        Jonathan Vandyne, June 24, 1857

SECTION 4    Horace Bradley, March 19, 1857

SECTION 7    James Cleaver, June 19, 1856

SECTION 8    James Cleaver, June 19, 1856

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SECTION 9    James Cleaver, June 19, 1856

SECTION 10    James Cleaver, June 19, 1856

SECTION 11    Franklin K. Beck, September 22, 1855

SECTION 12    James Cleaver, July 26, 1855
                         Eliot Burnett, July 27, 1859

SECTION 13    James Cleaver, July 26, 1855
                         Franklin K. Beck, September 22, 1855
                        Eliot Burnett, July 27, 1859

SECTION 15    Franklin K. Beck, September 22, 1855.

SECTION 17    James Cleaver, June 19, 1856
                         Horace Bradley, December 10, 1856
                         Horace Bradley, December 30, 1856

SECTION 22.    Peter Fuller, August 23, 1856
                          Horace Bradley, December 30, 1856

SECTION 23.    Samuel P. Sherman, April 10, 1856
                           Peter Fuller, August 23, 1856
                           Mary Ann Wilcox, March 17,1 857

SECTION 24    David Walker, September 17, 1855
                         Weston Palmer, September 17, 1855
                         John Palmer, September 17, 1855
                        David B. Decker, September 17, 1855    

SECTION 25     John Palmer, September 17, 1855
                            Franklin K. Beck September 22, 1855

SECTION 26    Martin Watrous, June 16, 1855
                         Franklin K. Beck, September 22, 1855
                        Horace Bradley, December 10, 1856

SECTION 27    Martin Watrous, January 5, 1853
                          Stephen D. Sayer, January 28, 1854
                          Martin Watrous, May 5, 1854
                          Samuel P. Shearman, December 10, 1856
                          Horace Bradley, December 10, 1856
                          Mary Ann Wilcox, December 3, 1856
                          Mary Ann Wilcox, December 30, 1856

SECTION 28    Horace Bradley, December 10, 1856
                          Lina M. Wilcox, December 3, 1856

SECTION 29     Martin Watrous, January 30, 1858
SECTION 31.    Dexter F. Mitchell, September 29, 1857

SECTION 32    Martin Watrous, March 3, 1855
                          Martin Watrous, March 2, 1855
                          Martin Watrous, April 17, 1855
                          Elijah S. White, August 28, 1855
                          James M. Van Campen, April 1, 1856
                          Thomas H. Williamson, December 15, 1856
                          Martin Watrous, January 30, 1858

SECTION 33    Martin Watrous, August 2, 1853
                          Daniel d. Dewey, September 22, 1853
                          Seth Hughs, November 25, 1854
                          Joseph White, August 28, 1855
                          John Palmer, September 13, 1856
                          Horace Bradley, December 10, 1856

SECTION 34   Martin Watrous, August 2, 1853
                         Martin Watrous, November 21, 1853
                        Lewis C. Beach, October 3, 1854
                        James M. Loud, November 24, 1854
                        William H. Swift, November 25, 1854
                        Daniel D. Dewey, February, 23, 1855
                        Thomas E. Rathburn, October 23, 1855

SECTION 35    Martin Watrous, August 2, 1853
                          Martin Watrous, April 18, 1854
                         Martin Watrous, June 14, 1854
                          Bela B. Balckslee, July 4, 1855
                          Thomas E. Rathburn, October 23, 1855
                          Walter Walters, April 18, 1856
                          Joshua D. Smith, March 10, 1857
                          Robert McFarlan, March 19, 1857

SECTION 36    Andrew Crofoot, Novmeber 13, 1854
                          John C. Laing, Novmeber 13, 1854
                          Amos Predmore, November 13, 1854
                          Jane Laing, November 17, 1854
                          Franklin K. Beck September 22, 1855
                          Robert McFarlan, March 19, 1857


     ELIJAH S. WHITE was born in Allegany County, New York, June 24, 1834.  In 1855 he came with his parents to Tuscola County, arriving in the town of Elmwood on the fourth day of June, where his father had previously pre-empted land in section 33.  he himself purchased one hundred and twenty acres of land in section 32, on which he made improvements; he did not take up his residence upon it, however, but made his home with his parents, and has continued to live on the old homestead to the present time.  Coming of age shortly after his arrival, he took active part in public affairs, and was one of the petitioners on whose application the town was organized. At the first town meeting he was elected treasurer and held the office de during the years 1850 and 1861.  In 1862 he was elected supervisor which office he held for eight years in succession and again, after one year's intermission, for four years in seccession.
     Mr. White was married August 9, 1833, to Nancy A. Smith, daughter of Joseph Smith, one of the first settlers of the town of Columbia. Mrs.. White was the pioneer teacher of Akron and also taught school subsequently in Elmwood.  They have two children, one having died.
     The first lumber brought into the town of Elmwood was rafted in Wahjamega, poled up the river to Caro by Mr. White, his brother Andrew, Simeon Botsford and William R. Robinson, and thence by land to Mr. White's place, where it was used in the construction of a barn, which is still in good preservation and constant use.
     The family suffered many hardships; money was anything but plenty with them; the flour and pork barrels often ran low and the wild fruits formed frequently a welcome addition to their fare.  When, however, their increased clearing furnished a surplus of products, a ready market for their sale was found in the neighboring lumber-camps.


     The town of Elmwood was organized in pursuance of a resolution adopted  by the board of supervisors at a meeting held January 11, 1860.  The territory comprised township 14 north, of range 10 east.  The signers to the application were William L. Miles, Geo. H. Wilcox, John C. Laing, William S. Miles, John McGee, Amos Predmore, A. O. McDonald, P. R. Weydemeyer, B. Prevo, E. S. White, Joseph White.  First township meeting was ordered held at the house of Joseph White.  The town was first called Waterloo, which name it retained until 1863. when it was changed to Elmwood by act of legislature, approved March 14, 1863.
     At the first annual town meeting of the town of Waterloo, held April 2, 1860, at the house of Joseph White, George H. Wilcox was chosen moderator, Amos Predmore, clerk, and Theodore B. Myers, assistant clerk of the board of inspectors.  The whole number of votes cast was eleven, and the following were the officers elected, viz., supervisor, George H Wilcox, clerk, John c. Laing; treasurer, Elijah s. White; school inspectors, Andrew O. McDonald, Amos Predmore; highway commissioners, Philetus R. Weydemeyer, Elijah S. White, Amos Predmore; justices of the peace, theodore B. Meyers, John H. Wilcox, Andrew O. McDonald, John C. Laing; constables, Andrew White, Philetus R. Weydemeyer; a unanimous vote was given in favor of district instead of town libraries.  Five hundred dollars was voted for highway purposes, and one hundred and fifty dollars for contingent expenses.  The inspectors at this election were George H Wilcox, Elijah S. White and Amos Predmore.
     The first meeting of school inspectors was held in the following August, and School District No. 1 formed to consist of section 23, 24, 25,26, 35 and 36.
     A meeting of the town boards of Waterloo and Ellington was held November 17, 1860, at the house of Joseph M. Dodge, in the town of Ellington, for the purpose of a settlement between towns; which resulted in the town board of Ellington giving to the town of Waterloo an order on the county treasurer for 4798.01 and an order on the treasurer of the board of school inspectors for $50.87.
     At the annual town-meeting in 1861, fifteen votes were cast.  The treasurer's statement shows the following as the tax-roll for 1861:

State tax................................................................................$    53.25
County tax.............................................................................    180.17
Township tax........................................................................   1,050.00
Highway tax.........................................................................       191.70
School tax.............................................................................      149.84
Excess of roll.........................................................................          2.11
Total......................................................................                   1,627.07

     August 21, 1861, the town board appointed Emery Nash as supervisor to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of George H. Wilcox.
     The annual town meeting for 1862 was held at the school house in District No. 1.  Two hundred and fifty dollars was voted for highways, $75 for contingent expenses and one-half the two mill tax for library fund.
     June 20, 1862, the town board appointed George F. Higley highway commissioner, to fill vacancy.  At a meeting held October 8, 1862, Joseph White was chosen treasurer to fill vacancy, and Theodore B. Myers, highway commissioner, to fill vacancy.
     At the annual town meeting in 1863, it was voted to raise $55 for each volunteer.  The number of votes cast at this meeting was thirteen.  At the annual town meeting in 1864, the voters were eighteen.
     A special town meeting was held June 27, 1864, for the purpose of raising money for volunteers in the military srvice in the United States.  The town board was authorized to issue bonds in the sum of $100 each for payment to each person who should volunteer or furnish an accepted substitute; and that $100 be paid Lewis P. Ramsdell on the transfer of his certificate of election, being transferred to the town of Elmwood.
     In August, 1864, the town board appointed Nelson Higley, clerk, and E. S. White and George W. sumner, highway commissoners, to fill vacancies.
     From 1865 to 1870, the records of town meetings and of the town boards, are missing.
    The number of votes at the town meeting in 1870 was fifty-one.
     The records of town meetings and town board for 1871, are missing.
     In 1874 the number of votes at the town meeting was ninety-three.  Five hundred dollars was voted for contingent fund, and $285 for cemetery fund.
     In 1875 the number of votes cast at the annual town meeting was 101.  It was voted to raise for the old orders in the town of Elmwood, $700, for highway fund, $500.
     In 1878 $1,000 was voted for highway purposes, and $300 for contingent fund.  September 5th, the town board appointed Daniel Price clerk, to fill vacancy.
     At the annual town meeting in 1880, a resolution was adopted to build a town hall, as near as possible to the center of the town.  The next year $200 was voted for a town hall, and the next town meeting was appointed to be held as near the center of town as possible.  the hall was subsequently built, and has been, occupied by one town meeting.


     From the annual school report of the town of Elmwood, for the year ending September 4, 1882, the following facts are obtained.  Directors for the ensuing year:  Roswell Webster, Robert Miller, N. a. Waugh, Louis Fornier, George Carolan and W. W. Hargrave.  There are four whole and two fractional districts, with six frame school-houses.  The number of children of school age is 398; attending school during the year, 310.


     Census of 1864:  Population, 100; number of acres of taxable land, 2,580; number of acres improved, 341; bushels of corn raised preceding year, 765; bushels of wheat raised; preceding year, 662; bushels of potatoes raised preceding year, 561; tons of hay cut preceding year, 73; pounds of butter made preceding year, 1,925.
     Census of 1874:  Population, 565; bushels of wheat raised, 7,554; bushels of corn raised, 2,465: bushels of potatoes raised, 3,530; tons of hay cut, 367.
     In 1880 the population was 1,017; in 1882 number of acres assessed, 22, 830; equalized valuation of real and personal property, $280,325.