Mackinac County
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War of 1812-13

From: Michigan in the War By Michigan Adjutant-General's Dept, John Robertson
Lansing: W.S. George & Co., State Printers and Binders

Pages 1005-1011Pages 1012-1022


drums beating. When only about a mile and a half on the way they were fired on by the Indians from behind a line of sand hills, and after a bloody fight, in which 38 out of 66 soldiers were killed, together with two women and 12 children, the remainder surrendered and were spared, but held as prisoners of war under very harsh treatment.

Colonel Miller, with a detachment of 600 officers ands men, composed of 280 regulars, the rest Ohio volunteers, was ordered on the evening of August 8th to make another effort to reach Captain Brush, who was still at the Raisin. He at once commenced the movement from Detroit and first encountered opposition from a party of Indians who fired on his rear guard near Moaguagon. The detachment being in the woods, immediately lightened themselves by throwing off their knapsacks and haversacks containing their rations and gallantly advanced upon the Indians, who retreated and were pursued about two miles and a half, where they reached their main force, estimated at equal in numbers to that of the Americans, and after a spirited and severe fight they were defeated, Miller's loss being 17 killed and wounded, while that of the enemy was 30 whites and 104 Indians killed and wounded.

This engagement, the principal one connected with the surrender of Detroit, is designated in the records of the War Department as the battle of Brownstown. Miller says of his command: "From their conduct on that occasion I never saw better troops of the description."

Miller sent a spy into Brownstown and understood from Captain Maxwell that the enemy had disappears. He then returned to the battle field to collect his dead and wounded and encamped there for the night. Next day Miller got the wounded into boats, and thinking that the communication with Brush on the Raisin had been opened, and failing to get sufficient supplies of provisions for his men, although he had sent Captain Snelling to Hull for that purpose, he took up his line of march on the 11th for Detroit, reaching there next day.

General Brock, the British commander, on the 12th or 13th of August arrived at Malden with 40 regulars and 260 militia. Previous to this the Americans had abandoned their out-post at Sandwich and the British had begun the construction of batteries opposite Detroit and in the same place where the others had been built on the 15th of July previous, just before Hull's arrival, and which had been broken up by Lieutenant Dalliba of the Ordinance Department, under the orders of Major John Whistler, 1st U. S. Infantry, then in command at Detroit. On the evening of August 14th Dalliba discovered the new batteries. He was at the time in command of a battery called Berthiet's Wharf, at the foot of Randolph street, but as the guns were on a platform on the edge of the river and intended to operate against the enemy's ships only, they were without any parapet and much lower than those of the enemy, and would be useless against them. He therefore applied to Hull and obtained permission to build a battery in the center of the town near about where the corner of Wayne street and Jefferson avenue now is, and then almost on the river bank, with a rapid descent thereto. This battery was commenced about 1 o'clock on the 14th and completed so as to be ready for action at the same hour on the 15th. On the evening of the 14th Hull rode up to the battery then in process of construction, when Dalliba questioned him as to the propriety of driving the enemy from their works, and said: "Sir, if you will give me permission I will clear the enemy on the opposite shore from the lower batteries." The General answered : "Mr. Dalliba, I will make an


agreement with the enemy that if they will never fire on me I will never fire on them. Those who live in glass houses must take care how they throw stones," and then rode off.

On the same day (14th) Hull ordered Colonel Cass with a detachment of about 350 men of the Ohio regiments under Colonel McArthur to open communication with the River Raisin by an inland route, since called the Tecumseh trail, which doubled the distance from Detroit, but was considered more safe at the time than the shorter one by the river road, and which strikes the Raisin higher up at what was known as Godfroy's trading post. This expedition was intended to relieve Captain Brush's command ordered on the 14th to move to that point. The march was continued until towards evening of the 15th, and until their subsistence, which was short on the start, was exhausted, when the project was abandoned, and when about half a mile on the return an order was received from Hull to move back on Detroit. Marching all night and on the morning of the 16th, when within a mile and a half of that place they heard the firing of cannon and learned that Hull had surrendered. The detachment then fell back to an advantageous position on the River Rouge with the intention of making a defense if attacked. The intelligence of the surrender was soon confirmed by deserters from the fort. A council of officers being held, it was considered that a large portion of the command could make good a retreat into Ohio. In the meantime Captain Mansfield was dispatched with a flag of truce to the British commander to inform him that if the surrender was unconditional they were prepared to defend themselves; but if there was a condition in the capitulation that the detachment might return to the United States they would avail themselves of that condition. About an hour after Captain Mansfield's departure a flag was sent out by General Brock with a letter from Hull stating that the detachment was included in the capitulation, and requiring its return, and. on further receiving a statement from Captain Mansfield on his return that the detachment had been so included, it returned to Detroit and surrendered.

On the morning of the 15th Brock opened his battery, which was followed by a flag of truce, received by Captains Charles Fuller and Josiah Snelling, 4th U. S. Infantry, with the demand for surrender, coupled with the threat that if not complied with he could not control the Indians then under his command. This demand was delivered about ten o'clock by Lieutenant Colonel J. McDonell and Major J. B. Glegg, who were blindfolded and conducted to the quarters of Major Henry J. Hunt to remain there for Hull's reply, which they did not receive until nearly 3 o'clock, when it was handed to them, stating that the General was prepared to meet Brock's force and any consequences from its use.

The British guns opened about three o'clock and immediately after the return of the flag of truce with Hull's reply. The fire was at once answered with vigor by the battery in command of Dalliba, as well as by others, and continued with good effect until about 10 o'clock at night. The cannonade was understood to be the prelude to a crossing of the river and a close attack upon the fort.

This State of affairs led the Americans to an inspection of their force and a consideration as to its most favorable disposition to continue the defense. Consequently, in the afternoon of the 15th Lieutenant Thos. S. Jessup, of the U. S. Infantry, acting Brigade Major, had made this his duty. Colonel Brush was assigned to command the Michigan militia, stationed at the east end of


town, bordering on what was known as his farm. Colonel Findlay's Ohio regiment and the Michigan Legionary Corps of four companies under Major James Witherell, made up of experienced soldiers, were to take a position back of the town, where the remainder of McArthur's and Cass's regiments was also stationed, while the 4th regulars occupied the fort. A change in these dispositions was made during the night, Findlay's regiment being moved farther west, occupying a line of picket fences along the river road, where he covered the approaches to the town.

In the evening of the 15th movements of the enemy indicated a crossing at Springwells by the collecting of boats and bringing up of British vessels. Captain Snelling, with a few men and a field piece, had been sent down to the sand hill, nearly opposite Sandwich, to reconnoitre and to watch the crossing, with orders to return and report before daylight. On his return it was urged by him and Major James Taylor, Hull's Quartermaster General, and also by Brigade Major Jessup, that the vessels could be driven off by placing one or two 24-pounders on the high ground so as to command the crossing ; but Hull refused on various pretexts. (This was made one of the charges against him on his trial.) Finally Jessup and Snelling proposed and begged to be allowed to cross the river and spike the guns, but with a like result. The enemy made no attempt to cross during the night nor until next morning about 7 o'clock (16th). The American troops were then all well posted near the town, with guns in position commanding the approaches, with a battery in command of Lieutenant John Anderson, U. S. Artillery, directly covering the road and ravine where the enemy would have to cross the Savoyard on a narrow bridge. The British commenced the movement across the river in boats protected by two of their armed vessels, and without the least opposition effected a landing at Springwells above the present Fort Wayne, near where the copper works now are, and moved on Detroit in close column of platoons, the road being left open to them without the least obstruction or resistance made to their advance, although opportunity offered in several ways. The road which they had to travel, being only about three miles long, was enclosed most of the way by close picket fences, or lined with orchards, affording excellent cover for sharp-shooters to annoy and harass them, while at the same time there were several bridges along the road the destruction of which would have made their advance somewhat difficult; but these opportunities were allowed to pass without notice or advantage.

The British batteries on the opposite side of the river had opened fire on the fort in the morning (16th) and were replied to by the American batteries. During this fire Lieutenants Hanks and Sibley, Dr. Reynolds, and two privates were killed and Dr. Blood wounded by shot entering the fort. The force outside in the meantime had not been allowed to resist the enemy, only about 750 strong, advancing up the road to attack the fort, but on the contrary Findlay's regiment had been ordered to move inside the fort, already overcrowded; but before this was accomplished, and the enemy being within a mile, which, coupled with the result of the fire on the fort referred to, appeared to so bewilder and terrify Hull that immediately he raised a white flag, and without any consultation with his principal officers sent his son, Captain A. F. Hull, his Aid-de-Camp, to Canada, bearing a flag of truce to Brock, announcing his willingness to surrender.

When Findlay with his regiment reached the fort he halted it outside and with Major Snelling found Hull inside. Much dissatisfied and indignant,


and at the same time much excited, he abruptly said. to his commanding officer, " What in hell am I ordered here for?" Hull replied in a low, trembling voice, that, in view of the number killed in the fort a surrender would be best, that he could procure better terms from General Brock at that time than if he waited a storm. Colonel Findlay, still much excited, replied, " Terms ! damnation ! we can beat them on the plain. I did not come here to capitulate. I came to fight."

The proposition of Hull was drawn in such an irregular way as to omit the ordinary request for honorable terms or the usual honors of war, and under the articles of capitulation, although not positively stated therein, his troops were to all intents and purposes unconditionally surrendered as prisoners of war without even a promise of parole or formal release, and at 12 o'clock, noon (16th), were marched out by the east gate where they stacked arms and became subject to the articles of capitulation. The British army then took possession and assumed control of the fort and Territory, and the people came under the dominion of martial law.

The officers who signed the articles of capitulation were Isaac Brock, Major General, Lieutenant Colonel J. McDonnell, and Major J. B. Glegz, British; Wm. Hull, Brigadier General, Lieutenant Colonel James Miller, U. S. A., Colonel Elijah Brush, and Lieutenant Colonel Robert Nichol, Michigan Militia.

In a supplementary article of the same date (16th) it was agreed that the officers and soldiers of the Ohio troops should be permitted to proceed to their respective homes on parole on condition that they should not serve during the war unless exchanged. These terms were by an additional article extended to the Michigan troops under command of Major Witherell.

The regular troops were held as prisoners of war and sent to Montreal, while those of Michigan were paroled at Detroit and those of Ohio were also paroled there and sent on vessels to Cleveland, from whence they made their way to their homes.

At the time of the surrender Captain Brush's command was still in camp near Godfroy's trading post, up on the Raisin, where on the 17th of August Captain Elliott of the British army made his appearance and claimed their surrender; but Brush considered that his command was not included in the capitulation, therefore declining to accede to his demand he marched his troops back to Ohio without giving parole.

In the meantime Major Witherell had been taken down the lake as a prisoner of war and only submitted to parole at Kingston. General Hull was taken to Montreal, arriving there on the 6th of September, where he was offered and accepted his parole on the 16th of that month, and allowed to proceed to his home.

Charges were afterwards preferred against Hull of treason, cowardice, neglect of duty, and unofficerlike conduct. On his trial before the court-martial the charge of treason was withdrawn, but he was found guilty of sufficient other charges and specifications to warrant the court in sentencing him to be shot, but on account of his services as an officer in the Revolutionary war the court earnestly recommended him to the mercy of President Madison, who approved of the sentence, but extended a pardon.

From the published histories of the affair it seems that with the exception of their commander the American troops were faithful in their service to their country on every occasion where the opportunity was offered them, while many of their officers, both regular and volunteer, distinguished themselves by


bravery and gallant deeds, being specially mentioned at the time. For gallant conduct at the battle of Brownstown, Lieutenant Colonel Miller received the brevet of Colonel; Captains Snelling, Baker, and Larrabee that of Major.

The Michigan troops compared favorably with all the others and. received noticeable commendation, while one of their Captains, Antoine Dequindre, as late as 1845, was extended a vote of thanks by the Michigan Legislature for his gallantry at Monguagon, including his men and all the other Michigan troops.

It appears from the evidence given on the trial of Hull by Captain Dalliba, who had charge of the ordnance, that the armament of the fort was well supplied, having abundance of ammunition and. the following cannon, viz.: 9 24-pounders, S 12-pounders, 5 9-pounders,-brass guns mounted on traveling carriages, 3 6-pounders, 2 4-pounders, 1 3-pounder,—brass howitzers mounted on traveling carriages, 1 8 1/2-inch, 1 5 1/2-inch, 2 3 1/2-inch, and 3 6-inch on iron or truck wheel carriages in the block house at the upper end of the town. That there were 2,500 stand of small arms in the whole, including rifles for the army. It also appears from the evidence of this officer that the fort was well constructed for defense, in good repair, and sufficiently armed.

In the fort or immediate vicinity at the time of the surrender were the 4th U. S. Infantry, Lieutenant Colonel James Miller commanding; detachments 1st and 3d U. S. Infantry; Captain Samuel T. Dyson's company U. S. Artillerists; Legionary Corps of four companies, composed of cavalry, infantry, riflemen, and artillery, in command of Major James Witherell; first regiment Michigan militia, commanded by Colonel Elijah Brush; second Ohio regiment, in command of Colonel Findlay, and portions of the other two Ohio regiments, commanded by Captain Sanderson, Cass and. McArthur being on their return from the attempted expedition to Godfroy's trading post on the Raisin with the other portions of these regiments.

Colonel Anderson, with the second Michigan regiment, was still on the lower Raisin and vicinity.

Complete records of the officers who were engaged in the defense of Detroit and the Territory are not to be found, especially relating to the Michigan troops, and the inference is from documents subsequently placed in the office of the Secretary of State, and now there, being a proclammation by William Woodbridge, Secretary of the Territory under Cass, and Acting Governor at the time, setting forth that owing to the convulsions of the war very many of the records of the Territory had been lost or destroyed, it became necessary to recall all commissions, both civil and military, in order to ascertain who held official positions. This proclamation does not seem to have brought about the desired result, as only a very few military commissions seem to have been returned.

On account of these defects it is not expected that all the officers who took part in the defense of the Territory can be named, but so far as they are of record they are given, and it is presumed that at least those who were most prominent and held commands are mentioned.


Brigadier General William Hull, commanding; Captain A. F. Hull, Aidde-Camp; Captain James Taylor, Acting Quartermaster General.

First U. S. Infantry.—Captains John Whistler and Daniel Baker; Lieutenant Dixon Stansbury, and Ensign Robert McCabe.


Third U. S. Infantry.—Lieutenant W. Butler (Adjutant McArthur's regiment).

Fourth U. S. Infantry.—Lieutenant Colonel James Miller; Captains Josiah Snelling, Oliver H. Burton, Charles Larrabee, and Charles Fuller; Lieutenants John L. Eastman, George Gooding, Lewis Peckham, John Bacon (Quartermaster), and Aaron W. Furbush.

Seventh U. S. Infantry.—Lieutenant Thomas S. Jessup (Acting Brigade Major) and Ensign Samuel McCormick (Adjutant Findlay's regiment).

U. S. Artillery.—Captain Samuel Dyson, Lieutenants James Dalliba (ordnance officer), Porter Hanks, and John Anderson.

U. S. Array.—Captains Harris H. Hickman, Jared. Mansfield (U. S. Engineers), Horatio Stark, John Whipple, Benjamin Forsyth (U. S. Riflemen), Lieutenant Asher Phillips and Sergeant Sylvester Day (U. S. Riflemen).


First Regiment—Colonel Duncan McArthur, commanding; Majors James Denny and William A. Trimble.

Second Regiment.—Colonel James Findlay, commanding; Majors Thomas Moore and Thomas Van Horne.

Third Regiment.—Colonel Lewis Cass, commanding; Majors Robert Morrison and Jeremiah K. Munson.

Detachment of two Companies.—Captains Henry Brush and Thomas Rowland.


George McDougall, Adjutant General Michigan Territory.

Legionary Corps.—Four companies, composed of cavalry, infantry, riflemen, and artillery, Major James Wetherell, commanding.

First Regiment Infantry.—Colonel Elijah Brush, commanding. Second Regiment Infantry.—Colonel John Anderson, commanding.

Although the foregoing statement contains only the names of commanders of Michigan troops, it is presumable that most of those officers commissioned and assigned to commands by Governor Hull in 1805 took an active part in the war, notwithstanding it has been found impossible to find any record.

On the day of the surrender and before his departure for Canada, General Brock published a proclamation declaring that the Territory of Michigan had been ceded to the Arms of His Britannic Majesty, "without any other condition than the protection of private property."

Proctor succeeded Brock in command, and on the 21st of August, by proclamation, organized a civil government. Soon after the Indians began to pillage property and became very mischievous otherwise.

On the 18th of January, 1813, the Adjutant General officially announced the exchange of Hull, McArthur, Cass, Findlay, Miller, and the remainder of the Detroit prisoners, thereby relieving them from disability to serve in the war.

Judge James M. Campbell, in his valuable work, "Outlines of the Political History of Michigan," from which has been derived most of the information contained in this brief notice of the war in Michigan Territory, says:
"The immediate result of Hull's surrender was a general uprising all over the west, Kentucky and Ohio were especially active, and General Harrison was by common consent put at the head of the forces, receiving a special commission from Kentucky. These troops were volunteers, not called out originally by the United States, but brought into the field by the enthusiasm


of the occasion. Harrison was also commissioned for the same purpose by the United States. The Indians were very soon scattered from the Wabash and driven northward. A campaign was planned for the recovery of Michigan and the capture of Malden, which was delayed by some untoward events and for a time prevented General Winchester, who, without orders, undertook to advance to the Raisin, and there met with a terrible calamity."

The troops under Winchester, an old Revolutionary officer, were intelligent and brave, chiefly Kentuckians, composed of the foremost young men of the State, and had entered the service determined to wipe out the disgrace of Hull's surrender and redeem the Michigan Territory from British rule and relieve the people from their terror of the merciless savage.

Under orders from Winchester of January 17, 1813, Colonel William Lewis, with a force of between 600 and 700 officers and men, commenced a march toward the Raisin, reaching a point near what is now the city of Monroe on the 18th, where lie was attacked by a force of British and Indians. He at once made a disposition of his army to engage the enemy. He assigned Lieutenant Colonel Allen to command the right wing, Major Graves the left, while Major Madison had the centre. He crossed the river on the ice. Graves and Madison attacking the enemy soon drove them from the village, while Allen encountered strong opposition on the right from a force with a howitzer in position, where the battle became very hot, but the enemy was finally driven, fighting obstinately. They were pursued into the heavy timber, when darkness put an end to the conflict. The loss of the Americans was 12 killed and 55 wounded, while that of the British was not published, and the Indians having dragged from the field their dead, their loss was not ascertained.

On the 21st Winchester had received a report that the British and Indians would attack him that night or next morning and he was urged by Lieutenant Colonel Wells, in command of regulars, to be prepared; but it appears that he disregarded both and left for the Maumee to hurry up reenforcements, which had started for the field, but did not reach there, having been turned back on hearing of the surrender.

A complete surprise was accomplished by the British, for at daybreak on the 22d the camp was heavily fired with shot and canister, while at the same time it was vigorously assaulted with regulars and Indians. A small force immediately under Lewis secured some cover in the heavy picket fences and. held its own for some time. The regulars, not finding any cover and being exposed to a severe fire, were rečnforced by Winchester and Lewis with about 100 men, when the enemy was held in check for some time; but a large body of Indians succeeding in turning their right flank, they were compelled to cross the river, when, though fighting bravely and desperately in detail, they could make no united defense. On this part of the field no quarter was given, the greatest portion of them being either killed or scalped. Winchester and Lewis surrendered to Roundhead, an Indian, who stripped them and took them to Proctor. Colonel Allen being among the killed.

Graves and Madison being on another part of the field maintained their position against the small artillery of the enemy, picking off with their riflemen the British gunners on sight, while Proctor with his whole force had withdrawn beyond range, leaving the Americans with time for breakfast.

Proctor, on the arrival of Winchester at his headquarters, intimated to him that he could not restrain his Indian allies, and Winchester, forcibly impressed with the barbarities which he had already witnessed and received at their


hands, and. at the same time underestimating the position and condition of the troops under Graves, consented to surrender, as he reported, on the understanding that the protection of the prisoners and private property should be secured, and that the side arms of the officers should be returned to them on arrival at Malden.

Major Overton of Winchester's staff, accompanied by Proctor, was made the bearer of a white flag to the American camp. Knowing well the habits and propensities of the Indians, Graves and Madison hesitated about submitting to surrender, and unless safety was fully secured declined to do so. Proctor agreed to this, promising to send sleds to convey the wounded to Malden next morning, and. to have them safely guarded in the meantime. On these assurances the surrender was accomplished. Notwithstanding these promises insolence was soon commenced by the Indians, and Proctor, when appealed to by Major Madison, advanced the usual excuse that it was beyond his power to restrain them. Madison at once gave orders to his men, who were still armed, to protect themselves with their guns. This took effect, and the Indians stopped their mischievous work, and the unwounded troops were at once marched off toward Malden.

Contrary to the assurances of Proctor, his promises were all disregarded. Private property of both officers and soldiers was permitted to be pillaged and destroyed, and some of the worst atrocities were committed without restraint or punishment. The wounded were neglected, and in place of being carried off in sleds, as promised, were left at the mercy of the savages, and most of them were put to death or scalped, and even many of the unwounded, both officers and men, were murdered on the road to Malden, very few reaching there.

The bloody battle of the Raisin has well been designated in history as one of the inhuman massacres of the ages. The shot-gun, the tomahawk, and scalping knife were the instruments of death in the hands of the victorious savages bent on unrestrained plunder and butchery, while the bodies of many of the dead, being left unprotected and exposed, were devoured by dogs, swine, and other voracious animals, the brutal tyrant who controlled affairs not even interfering in the least to secure their naked and mangled bodies a deposit in the frozen ground.

"How dread was the conflict, how bloody the fray, told the banks of the Raisin at the dawn of the day; While the gush from the wounds of the dying and dead Had thaw'd for the warrior a snow-sheeted bed."

"But where is the pride that a soldier can feel, to temper with mercy the wrath of the steel, While Proctor, victorious, denies to the brave Who had fallen in battle, the gift of the grave."

Judge Campbell says in his work already referred to: "The British victory was dearly bought. Proctor had 182 killed and wounded among his white force, or more than one-third of their whole number. The loss of the Indians is not known. but it must have been very large. Of the American troops not more than 30 or 40 escaped; 537 prisoners were accounted for as first estimated, and the number was increased by 40 or 50 afterwards ransomed from the Indians. The number of killed and missing was 397, a large number of whom were not slain in action, but murdered afterwards."


The expedition of Proctor into Ohio early in 1813, his attempted attack and failure May 1st on Fort Meigs at the Maumee Rapids, then held by General Harrison, and his defeat on July 27th following in his assault on Fort Stephenson, on the Sandusky river, in command of Major George Croghan, coupled with the advance of Harrison's army, rendered the retreat of Proctor on Malden advisable, which he accomplished in all haste.

Commodore Perry's great victory on Lake Erie on the 10th of September followed, in which Major Henry B. Brevoort, U. S. Army, a Michigan officer who had entered the service as an Ensign, 2d U. S. Infantry, in 1802, took a prominent part in command of a detachment of soldiers acting as marines.

Major Brevoort, having with his family lived in Detroit, was in possession of much valuable information regarding the number and strength of the British vessels, and which proved of great service to Perry.

These events and the advance of Perry's fleet towards the mouth of the Detroit river compelled the abandonment of Maiden on the 18th of that month by the British forces. On the 27th of September Harrison crossed from the Middle Sister Island to the Canada shore about four miles below Malden, and on marching into that place and finding it evacuated he at once prepared for pursuit, but did not expect to overtake Proctor until he should reach the Thames, where he told. Tecumseh he meant to make a stand.

From Judge Campbell's work: "Proctor was at Sandwich when Harrison landed, and he at once moved eastward with the Detroit garrison and all his auxiliaries. On the 28th the American army reached Sandwich, and General Duncan McArthur crossed over and took possession of the fort, which he had left before under such different circumstances. The overjoyed inhabitants were released from what had become a reign of terror. The fort had been fired, but the flames were extinguished, and General McArthur drove off a horde of hostile Indians, who were prowling round the neighborhood. The fleet arrived the same day. On the 29th General Harrison issued his proclamation restoring the civil authority as it had been before the surrender, and entrusting its administration to the old incumbents when present, and to their next predecessors if absent. Colonel Johnson's riflemen came up on the 30th, and crossed into Canada the day after.

"The American flag is said to have been raised. by the inhabitants before McArthur's entrance. But it never. floated. again from the old flag-staff. That was left bare and uncared for as a memorial and warning, until a few years afterwards, in June, 1820, it was blown over by a severe wind and ceased to be visible over the walls. What ignominious uses its ruins may have served it is not recorded. It was not in demand for relics.

"McArthur's command was left to hold Detroit. Cass's brigade was left at Sandwich, and Harrison, with a force of about 3,500, on the 2d of October pushed on by laud after Proctor, the smaller vessels of the fleet sailing up the Thames. Proctor was at last overtaken at the Moravian towns, and compelled to give battle on the 5th. The mounted. riflemen dashed through the British line and turned it, and in less than ten minutes the whole force was captured except General Proctor and 17 officers and 239 men. The official reports of his own government show that he was regarded as having been guilty of grossly disgraceful conduct. His brave ally, Tecumseh, met a soldier's death by the hands of a very brave enemy, having been shot by Colonel Richard M. Johnson, while the latter was wounded and held down by his own horse, which had fallen on him, and Tecumseh was approaching to kill him. James Knaggs,


who aided in carrying Colonel Johnson off the field, was intimately acquainted with. Tecumseh, and recognized him when pointed out by Colonel Johnson as an Indian whom he had shot in self-defense. Probably no one in the army had as good a knowledge of Tecumseh as Captain Knaggs, who had been for years an interpreter, and familiar with all the chiefs. The identity of the slayer and of the slain is as well established as testimony can establish. anything.

"General Cass and Commodore Perry acted as volunteer aids to General Harrison, and he gave great credit to both for their efficient help in making his arrangements and preparations."

In October, 1813, General Cass, who had held the rank of Brigadier General U. S. Army since March 12, 1813, was by President Madison made permanent Governor of Michigan Territory, with William Woodbridge, of Marietta, Ohio, as his Secretary. On the 15th of December he appointed George McDougall his Adjutant General, and on the 17th the following order was issued reorganizing the militia:

December 17, 1813.

The situation of the country requiring the most prompt and efficient organization of the militia, the Commander-in-Chief directs that Lieutenant Colonel Smyth use all exertions to complete his corps, which will immediately be placed in actual service, and be reported to Lieutenant Colonel Butler of the 28th Infantry (U. S. A.), who will be left in command of this post and its dependencies.

The commanding officer of the first and second regiments will organize their regiments with all possible dispatch. In the division of companies they will conform, as nearly as may be, to the situation of things prior to the surrender of this place to the enemy. But where an altered state of the population, or other circumstances, render an alteration expedient, they are authorized to make it.

The commanding officer of corps and regiments will make regular returns of the number of men fit for duty in their respective regiments or corps to Lieutenant Colonel Butler, and will receive and receipt for a sufficient quantity of arms and ammunition.

During the absence of the Commander-in-Chief the Adjutant General will, on the requisition of the commanding officer at this post, order out the whole or such part of the militia as the commanding officer may require.

By order of the Commander-in-Chief.

Adjutant General T. M.

Commissions issued by Governor Cass, December 18, 1813 :
George McDougall, Adjutant General.

Legionary Corps.—Richard. Smyth, Lieutenant Colonel; Henry J. Hunt, Major; Captains, Antoine Dequindre, Benjamin Woodworth, John Conner, Isaac Lee; Lieutenants, Isaac Ruland, George Johnstone, Otto Miller, Jacob Smith, John Palmer, John Dousman; Ensigns, J. Macomb, J. S. Roby, L. Dequindre, Laurent Darocher.
Battalion on rivers Huron (now Clinton) and St. Clair : James Conner, Major; Captains, Henry Conner, William Tucker, Joseph Roe; Lieutenants, George Cottrell, Pierre Chauvin; Ensigns, Michael Duchesne, Beaubien, Francis St. Aubin.

First Regiment.—Gabriel Godfroy, Lieutenant Colonel; Jacob Visger, Major; Captains, J. B. Cicotte, Dominique Bondy, Jacques Campeau, Charles Rivard, Louis Beufait, Francis Cicotte; Lieutenants, Charles N. Gouin, John Dicks, A. Baron, J. B. Godfroy, Lambert Beaubien, Francis Rivard; Ensigns, John Grant, Pierre Labadie, J. Meldrum, J. B. Beaubien, A. B. Delisle, John Goodell.


Second Regiment.—Francis Navarre, Lieutenant Colonel; J. B. Beaugrand, Major ; Captains, Hubert LaCroix, Dominique Drouillard, Jacques Navarre, J. B. Couture ; Lieutenants, Francis Lasselle, Jos. Duseau, Martin Nadeau, Jos. Robert; Ensigns, Isidore Robert, Duncan Reid, John B. Roe, Joseph LeBeau.

In this organization are included a large number of the officers who were assigned to the organization effected by Hull in 1805, and as has already been stated, most of them must have been in service during the struggle in Michigan Territory in 1812.

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 Mackinac County
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